Table 3.

Sensitivity analyses for the risk of CKD

AnalysisEvents, n/NcHR (95% CI)P ValueaHRa,b (95% CI)P Value
Adjusted for all covariates in Table 1
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers121/14071.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users48/12120.67 (0.48 to 0.94)0.020.67 (0.47 to 0.95)0.03
Rheumatoid arthritis defined by a stringent criterionc
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers55/4931.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users31/6620.52 (0.33 to 0.80)0.0030.51 (0.33 to 0.80)0.003
CKD defined by a stringent criteriond
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers117/14071.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users46/12120.67 (0.48 to 0.94)0.020.64 (0.45 to 0.91)0.01
Hydroxychloroquine use as a time-dependent covariate
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers121/14071.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users48/12120.63 (0.48 to 0.84)0.0020.60 (0.45 to 0.81)0.001
Including patients with SLE and psoriasis
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers129/15141.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users52/13350.66 (0.48 to 0.91)0.010.64 (0.46 to 0.89)0.01
Maintaining group assignment despite discontinuation of hydroxychloroquine
 Hydroxychloroquine nonusers136/14071.001.00
 Hydroxychloroquine users86/12120.63 (0.48 to 0.82)0.0010.59 (0.45 to 0.79)<0.001
  • cHR, crude hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; aHR, adjusted hazard ratio; —, not applicable.

  • a Adjusted for propensity scores.

  • b All-cause death was considered a competing risk.

  • c Defined according to the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients only.

  • d Defined by the most specific and clinically relevant diagnosis codes for CKD (Supplemental Table 1).