Table 1.

Characteristics of SPRINT MIND participants by categories of serum bicarbonate

Serum Bicarbonate, mEq/L
CharacteristicaTotal (n=2853)≤24 (n=643)25–28 (n=1638)>28 (n=572)
Demographics
 Age, yr (SD)b68 (9)67 (8)69 (9)69 (9)
 Women, n (%)b1053 (37)206 (32)604 (37)243 (43)
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  White1704 (60)388 (60)983 (60)333 (58)
  Black856 (30)193 (30)478 (29)185 (32)
  Hispanic233 (8)52 (8)141 (9)40 (7)
  Other60 (2)10 (2)36 (2)14 (3)
 Smoking, n (%)b
  Current355 (12)103 (16)201 (12)51 (9)
  Former1246 (44)292 (45)709 (43)245 (43)
  Never1249 (44)248 (39)727 (44)274 (48)
 Body mass index, kg/m2 (SD)b29.8 (5.7)30.5 (5.7)29.8 (5.6)29.2 (5.8)
 History of cardiovascular disease, n (%)b568 (20)154 (24)293 (18)121 (21)
 CKD, n (%)b863 (30)256 (40)471 (29)136 (24)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg (SD)139 (16)138 (16)139 (16)140 (17)
Laboratory data
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2 (SD)b71 (20)67 (23)72 (19)74 (18)
 Urine albumin-to-creatinine, mg/g, median (IQR)b9.7 (5.8–22.5)10.8 (6.4–33.7)9.4 (5.6–20.0)9.3 (5.6–22.3)
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl (SD)b1.1 (0.3)1.2 (0.4)1.1 (0.3)1.0 (0.3)
 HDL, mg/dl (SD)b53 (15)52 (14)54 (14)55 (15)
 LDL, mg/dl (SD)112 (35)111 (38)113 (35)111 (35)
Medication use, n (%)b
 Diureticsb1277 (45)221 (34)705 (43)351 (61)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorb1058 (37)258 (40)613 (38)187 (33)
 Angiotensin receptor blocker613 (22)148 (23)329 (20)136 (24)
 Calcium channel blocker1024 (36)231 (36)597 (37)196 (34)
β-blocker884 (31)206 (32)487 (30)191 (33)
 Antiacidosisb15 (0.5)12 (2)2 (0.1)1 (0.2)
 Aspirin1465 (51)325 (51)841 (51)299 (53)
 Phosphate binders34 (1)9 (1)19 (1)6 (1)
  • a The following characteristics had missing data: smoking (n=3); body mass index (n=24); eGFR (n=9); urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=139); serum creatinine (n=9); HDL (n=4); LDL (n=23); and aspirin (n=6). All other 13 covariates had no missing data.

  • b Statistically significant differences were observed between the three groups of serum bicarbonate.