Table 3.

Principal components analysis of plasma metabolites and change in eGFR in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China study

FactorDescriptionComponentsEigenvalueChange in eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year)Incident Reduced eGFR
β (95% Confidence Interval)P ValueRelative Risk (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
1Long-chain acylcarnitinesC18:2, C18, C14OH, C20:4, C20, C18:1, C16:2, C14:1OH, C16:1, C18OH11.39−0.13 (−0.21 to −0.05)0.0021.14 (1.03 to 1.27)0.01
2Medium-chain acylcarnitinesC12, C12:1, C14, C12OH, C8, C10, C16, C6, C3DC, C2, C6OH, C10DC8.11−0.09 (−0.17 to −0.01)0.021.09 (0.98 to 1.21)0.12
3Branched-chain and aromatic amino acidsLeucine, valine, isoleucine, alanine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamic acid, proline, methionine, lysine5.95−0.10 (−0.20 to 0.00)0.051.13 (0.99 to 1.28)0.06
4Short-chain acylcarnitinesC0, C3, C4, C5, C5OH3.02−0.05 (−0.14 to 0.03)0.221.00 (0.89 to 1.12)0.97
5MiscellaneousSerine, glutamine, glycine, ornithine, histidine2.02−0.11 (−0.20 to −0.02)0.011.03 (0.91 to 1.16)0.67
6MiscellaneousCysteine, threonine1.94−0.23 (−0.31 to −0.15)<0.0011.32 (1.18 to 1.47)<0.001
  • Six factors were retained according to the scree plot and varimax rotation performed to produce interpretable factors. Metabolites with a factor load ≥0.5 were reported as composing a factor. Data are annual change in eGFR or relative risk per SD increase in factor scores, after adjustment for age, sex, region (Beijing/Shanghai), residence (urban/rural), education, current smoking, current drinking, physical activity, body mass index, lipid-lowering medication use, HDL, LDL, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and eGFR at baseline.