Table 3.

Symptoms in patients admitted with hyponatremia

FindingsAuthor (Ref.), Year
Chow et al. (47),2004Arampatzis et al. (49), 2012Nigro et al. (48), 2015
Selection criteriaSerum Na<130 mEq/L Thiazide inducedSerum Na <121 mEq/L ED admissionSerum Na<125 mEq/L 46% admit for sx’s 96% chronic
No. of Patients223168298
Serum Na mean116 mEq/L121 mEq/L120 mEq/L
Serum Na range98-128 mEq/L97-121 mEq/LIQR 116-123 mEq/L
Confusion17%20%30%
Nausea38%44%
Vomiting35%30%
Headache19%27%
Seizures0.9%16%5%
In-hospital mortality0%13%5%
Fatal cerebral edema0%0%0%
osmotic demyelination syndrome (MRI diagnosis)One casea0%0%
  • Na, sodium; ED, emergency department; sx’s, symptoms; IQR, interquartile range, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.

  • a Serum Na 101 corrected to 116 mEq/L after 36 h, K.M. Chow, personal communication