Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 1765 participants in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China study

CharacteristicAll (n=1765)Incident Reduced eGFR
No (n=1491)Yes (n=274)
Age, yra58±658±661±6
Male745 (42)631 (42)114 (42)
Beijing resident721 (41)608 (41)113 (41)
Urban resident725 (41)614 (41)111 (41)
Education level, yra
 0–6828 (47)686 (46)142 (52)
 7–9604 (34)528 (35)76 (28)
 ≥10333 (19)277 (19)56 (20)
Current smoker484 (27)406 (27)78 (28)
Current drinker436 (25)378 (25)58 (21)
Physical activity level
 Low119 (7)106 (7)13 (5)
 Medium699 (40)586 (39)113 (41)
 High947 (54)799 (54)148 (54)
Cardiovascular diseaseab171 (10)133 (9)38 (14)
Type 2 diabetesc166 (9)144 (10)22 (8)
Hypertensionad915 (52)751 (50)164 (60)
Antihypertensive medication usea451 (26)365 (24)86 (31)
Lipid-lowering medication use101 (6)83 (6)18 (7)
Systolic BP, mmHga139±22138±22144±23
Diastolic BP, mmHga80±1180±1181±11
BMI, kg/m224.4±3.524.4±3.524.4±3.5
Fasting glucose, mg/dl102±27103±28101±24
Total cholesterol, mg/dl180±37180±36180±40
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl50±1350±1350±13
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dl124±36.7124±36123±39
Triacylglycerol, mg/dl94 (66–143)94 (65–143)94 (68–151)
Gamma-glutamyltransferase, IU/L23 (17–35)23 (17–35)23 (17–36)
C-reactive protein, mg/L0.62 (0.32–1.36)0.61 (0.32–1.38)0.70 (0.32–1.32)
Uric acid, mg/dla2.8 (2.3–3.3)2.7 (2.3–3.3)2.9 (2.3–3.5)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2a87±1389±1278±12
eGFR change, ml/min per 1.73 m2 per yeara−2.2±2.0−2.0±1.8−3.7±2.1
  • Data are presented as mean±SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables, and count (percentage) for categoric variables. Percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding. There were no missing values. BMI, body mass index.

  • a P<0.05 for comparison between incident reduced eGFR group and noncase group.

  • b Cardiovascular disease was defined as having self-reported coronary heart disease or stroke.

  • c Type 2 diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose concentration >7.0 mmol/L, taking antidiabetic medications, or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes.

  • d Hypertension was defined as systolic BP >140 mmHg, diastolic BP >90 mmHg, use of antihypertensive medications, or self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension.