Table 1.

Physicochemical properties and dialyzability statements for study β-blockers

β-BlockerPhysicochemical PropertiesIndustry StatementsReview ArticlesExpected Dialyzability
Product MonographsDialysis of Drugs 2013aLevin et al. (21)Chazot and Jean (19)Chen et al. (20)Redon et al. (22)
AtenololMolecular mass: 266 DModerately dialyzable (20%–50%)Conventional HD: yes; modern HD: likelyDDDDHigh dialyzability
Water solubility: 13,500 mg/L
Protein binding: 10%
VD: 4.2 L/kg
MetoprololMolecular mass: 267 DNo statementConventional HD: yes; modern HD: likelyDDDNDHigh dialyzability
Water solubility: 16,900 mg/L
Protein binding: 10%
VD: 3.2 L/kg
BisoprololMolecular mass: 325 DNot dialyzableConventional HD: yes; modern HD: no dataNDNDNDNDLow dialyzability
Water solubility: 2,240 mg/L
Protein binding: 30%
VD: 3.0 L/kg
CarvedilolMolecular mass: 406 DNot dialyzableConventional HD: no; modern HD: unlikelyNDNDNDNDLow dialyzability
Water solubility: 0.583 mg/L
Protein binding: >98%
VD: 1.6 L/kg
  • Yes indicates that dialysis was found to enhance drug clearance from previously published studies. No indicates that dialysis was not found to enhance drug clearance from previously published studies. No data indicate that no data or assumptions from physicochemical properties exist to describe drug dialyzability. Likely drug is likely to be cleared by HD on the basis of physicochemical parameters, but no data exist. Unlikely drug is unlikely to be cleared by HD on the basis of physicochemical parameters, but no data exist. VD, volume of distribution; HD, hemodialysis; D, drug is listed as dialyzable in corresponding review article; ND, drug is listed as not dialyzable in corresponding review article.

  • a Annual guidelines published by Renal Pharmacy Consultants, LLC (Saline, MI). Dialyzability is on the basis of scientific and industry data.