Table 2.

Characteristics of 472 patients with cirrhosis initiated on RRT for AKI, by vital status at 6 mo

CharacteristicAlive at 6 mo (n=114)Died by 6 mo (n=358)P Value
Age, yr56 (54 to 58)58 (56 to 59)0.28
Female sex39 (34)123 (34)0.97
White race97 (85)272 (76)0.04
Non-Hispanic ethnicity109 (96)332 (93)0.28
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus51 (45)119 (33)0.03
 Coronary artery disease32 (28)94 (26)0.70
 CKD24 (21)55 (15)0.15
 Hypertension74 (65)189 (53)0.02
Reason for admission<0.001
 Complications of cirrhosis53 (46)118 (33)
 AKI25 (22)41 (11)
 Infection20 (18)129 (36)
 Other16 (14)70 (20)
Other hospitalization characteristics
 Sepsis57 (50)222 (62)0.02
 Admission/transfer to intensive care unit71 (63)315 (88)<0.001
 Intravenous vasopressor use65 (57)286 (80)<0.001
 Mechanical ventilation41 (36)210 (59)<0.001
 Length of stay, d38 (32 to 44)20 (18 to 22)<0.001
Initial renal replacement modality0.01
 Intermittent hemodialysis77 (68)194 (54)
 Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration37 (32)164 (46)
Cause of cirrhosisa0.10
 Alcohol36 (32)139 (39)
 Hepatitis C17 (15)69 (19)
 Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis16 (14)25 (7)
 Multifactorial16 (14)43 (12)
 Other29 (25)80 (22)
Prior complications of liver disease
 Ascites95 (83)292 (82)0.67
 Encephalopathy78 (68)201 (56)0.02
 Gastrointestinal bleeding74 (65)227 (63)0.77
 Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis35 (31)79 (22)0.06
 Hepatocellular carcinoma10 (9)31 (9)0.97
MELD score33 (32 to 35)35 (34 to 35)0.12
CLIF-C ACLF score55 (52 to 57)61 (60 to 63)<0.001
Cause of AKI<0.001
 Hepatorenal syndrome43 (38)75 (21)
 Acute tubular necrosis71 (62)283 (79)
Laboratory values
 Sodium, meq/L135 (134 to 136)136 (135 to 136)0.27
 BUN, mg/dl62 (56 to 68)66 (62 to 69)0.26
 Creatinine, mg/dl4.6 (4.2 to 5.0)4.2 (4.0 to 4.4)0.02
 Urine sodium, mmol/Lb31 (25 to 37)33 (27 to 38)0.66
 White blood count, K/μl11.5 (10.0 to 13.1)14.2 (13.2 to 15.2)0.01
 Hemoglobin, g/dl9.0 (8.7 to 9.2)9.3 (9.2 to 9.5)0.04
 Platelets, K/μl96 (83 to 108)95 (88 to 102)0.92
 Albumin, g/dlc3.1 (3.0 to 3.2)3.0 (2.9 to 3.0)0.03
 International normalized ratio1.9 (1.8 to 2.0)2.2 (2.1 to 2.3)<0.001
 Total bilirubin, mg/dl12 (9 to 14)13 (12 to 15)0.32
 Aspartate aminotransferase, U/Ld306 (−17 to 629)544 (366 to 721)0.20
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/Ld89 (40 to 137)195 (129 to 261)0.01
 Alkaline phosphatase, U/Ld128 (113 to 143)155 (139 to 171)0.01
  • Cells represent N (percent) for categoric variables and mean (95% confidence interval) for continuous variables. MELD, Model for End Stage Liver Disease; CLIF-C ACLF, Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Score.

  • a n=470 available.

  • b n=357 available.

  • c n=471 available.

  • d n=468 available.