Table 2.

Associations of diabetes mellitus with CKD among adults in the United States

ParameterAlbuminuria ACR≥30 mg/gMacroalbuminuria ACR≥300 mg/geGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2Any CKD
N with abnormality
 No diabetes1159136847831774
 Diabetes69017748265943
Prevalence (95% CI), %
 No diabetes3.0 (2.6 to 3.5)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)2.5 (2.0 to 3.0)0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)5.3 (4.6 to 5.9)
 Diabetes16 (13 to 18)4.6 (3.4 to 5.8)12 (9 to 15)2.4 (1.4 to 3.4)25 (21 to 28)
Prevalence ratio (95% CI)
 Model 13.84 (3.21 to 4.59)8.70 (5.78 to 13.10)2.27 (1.65 to 3.10)2.63 (1.41 to 4.89)2.67 (2.26 to 3.15)
 Model 22.66 (2.18 to 3.24)4.85 (2.99 to 7.84)1.91 (1.40 to 2.59)2.45 (1.20 to 5.02)2.05 (1.74 to 2.42)
Difference in prevalence (95% CI), %
 Model 111.2 (9.4 to 13.0)3.9 (3.1 to 4.7)6.0 (3.1 to 9.0)1.3 (0.3 to 2.4)14.9 (12.3 to 17.6)
 Model 210.8 (8.7 to 12.9)4.5 (3.5 to 5.5)6.5 (2.8 to 10.3)1.8 (0.2 to 3.4)14.6 (11.3 to 17.8)
Attributable risk (95% CI), %
 Model 174 (69 to 79)88 (84 to 93)55 (41 to 47)62 (39 to 85)62 (56 to 69)
 Model 262 (55 to 70)79 (69 to 88)47 (30 to 64)59 (31 to 88)51 (43 to 59)
  • Cell contents are raw numbers of participants, weighted proportions (95% CI) of United States adults with and without diabetes who have the indicated clinical manifestation, adjusted prevalence ratios, adjusted differences in prevalence, and risks of CKD attributable to diabetes. All estimates of prevalence take into account information on the persistence of albuminuria, reduced eGFR, or both. Any CKD was defined as a urine ACR ≥30 mg/g or eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Model 1 was adjusted for demographics and included adjustment for age, age2, sex, and race/ethnicity; model 2 additionally adjusted for use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, use of antihypertensive medications, history of hypertension, years of hypertension, and systolic BP. ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.