Table 2.

Variables associated with nephrologist’s recommendations for and observed rates of nephrology follow-up after AKI according to patient and provider characteristics

CharacteristicPercentage Follow-Up, %Unadjustedb Odds Ratio (95% CI)Adjustedc Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Nephrologists’ opinions obtained from the surveyRecommendeda
 Patient characteristics
  Age, yr
   ≤60901 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   61–69870.81 (0.64 to 1.04)0.89 (0.68 to 1.16)
   70–79891.15 (0.93 to 1.43)1.16 (0.93 to 1.46)
   ≥80840.74 (0.55 to 1.01)0.73 (0.52 to 1.01)
  Preexisting CKD
   No851 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes891.47 (1.23 to 1.75)1.47 (1.16 to 1.87)
  Acute dialysis in hospital
   No871 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes911.51 (1.34 to 1.68)1.60 (1.35 to 1.91)
  Recovery of kidney function
   Full recovery571 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   20%–60% above baseline creatinine933.20 (2.66 to 3.83)3.31 (2.67 to 4.11)
   >60% above baseline creatinine989.65 (6.68 to 13.92)10.43 (7.10 to 15.33)
  Heart failure
   No861 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes921.80 (1.49 to 2.18)1.96 (1.59 to 2.41)
 Physician characteristics
  <10 yr in practice
   No891 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes860.85 (0.54 to 1.34)0.78 (0.45 to 1.34)
  Academic practice
   No921 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes860.59 (0.37 to 0.93)0.51 (0.30 to 0.89)
Observed clinical practice from the cohort studyActualb
 Patient characteristics
  Age, yr
   ≤60251 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   61–69230.89 (0.68 to 1.17)0.75 (0.52 to 1.07)
   70–79281.17 (0.90 to 1.51)0.67 (0.47 to 0.97)
   ≥80200.77 (0.57 to 1.05)0.34 (0.22 to 0.53)
  Preexisting CKD
   No121 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes435.85 (4.69 to 7.31)4.92 (3.61 to 6.71)
  Acute dialysis in hospital
   No261 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes180.62 (0.47 to 82)0.97 (0.67 to 1.38)
  Recovery of kidney function
   Full recovery171 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   20%–60% above baseline creatinine211.31 (0.97 to 1.75)1.55 (1.06 to 2.27)
   >60% above baseline creatinine362.82 (2.24 to 3.54)4.73 (3.47 to 6.44)
  Heart failure
   No231 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes291.38 (1.08 to 1.77)1.28 (0.92 to 1.79)
 Physician contacts
  Nephrologist visit before admission
   No161 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes7818.45 (13.49 to 25.23)10.06 (6.99 to 14.49)
  Nephrologist consult during index admission
   No141 [Reference]1 [Reference]
   Yes414.45 (3.59 to 5.50)3.10 (2.39 to 4.01)
  • Nephrologists’ opinions were obtained from a survey of Canadian nephrologists on the basis of clinical vignettes, whereas data on observed clinical practice were obtained from a cohort of patients from Alberta, Canada hospitalized with AKI from 2005 to 2014. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a The percentage of patients with given characteristics from clinical vignettes for whom nephrologists would probably or definitely recommend follow-up is reported for the nephrologist’s opinions obtained from the survey.

  • b The percentage of patients with the given characteristics who actually received follow-up within 1 year of discharge is reported on the basis of observed clinical practice from the cohort study.

  • c Covariates in the model included all variables listed in the first column of the table.