Table 3.

Associations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug switch with change in other analgesic and opioid use (n=15,917)

NSAID at Antecedent VisitNSAID at Subsequent (Current) VisitTotal in GroupIncrease in No. of Any Other (Non-NSAID) AnalgesicsIncrease in No. of Opioid Analgesics Only
n (%) IncreaseAdjusted OR (95% CI)an (%) IncreaseAdjusted OR (95% CI)a
NoNo (row %)13,3771863 (14)Reference 1818 (6)Reference 1
NoYes (row %)698139 (20)1.52 (1.25 to 1.85)78 (11)1.92 (1.48 to 2.48)
YesYes (row %)985153 (16)Reference 278 (8)Reference 2
YesNo (row %)857211 (25)1.78 (1.39 to 2.28)93 (11)1.46 (1.04 to 2.03)
  • NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Model includes NSAID status at antecedent and subsequent visits and their interactions, age category, sex, body mass index category, cardiovascular disease, arthritis (all at antecedent visit), and number of years since baseline visit.