Table 4.

Top nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesic medications, and nonopioid analgesic medications by frequency of visits with a report of medication and proportion of those visits with a drug-related problem

MedicationaN (%) of VisitsN (%) of Visits Where Drug Is Recorded as a DRP
NSAIDs
 Ibuprofen983 (5)
 Naproxen561 (3)
 Celecoxib183 (0.9)
 Indomethacin146 (0.7)
 Diclofenac118 (0.6)
 Nabumetone68 (0.3)
 Meloxicam65 (0.3)
 Etodolac63 (0.3)
 Sulindac53 (0.3)
 Valdecoxib31 (0.2)
 Rofecoxib25 (0.1)
Opioid analgesics
 Hydrocodone1108 (6)20 (2)
 Tramadol697 (4)42 (6)
 Codeine545 (3)4 (0.7)
 Oxycodone505 (3)10 (2)
 Propoxyphene320 (2)98 (31)
 Morphine97 (0.5)5 (5)
 Fentanyl59 (0.3)17 (29)
 Hydromorphone40 (0.2)0 (0.0)
 Methadone24 (0.1)14 (58)
Nonopioid analgesics
 Acetaminophen5262 (27)14 (0.3)
 Aspirin490 (3)73 (15)
 Salsalate54 (0.3)11 (20)
 Acetaminophen/caffeine/butalbital26 (0.1)0 (0.0)
 Magnesium salicylate10 (0.1)5 (50)
 Acetaminophen5262 (27)14 (0.3)
  • Individual analgesics at each visit were defined as a DRP if they were recommended for avoidance in CKD or if dose exceeded recommended dosing for a specific GFR. DRP, drug-related problem; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  • a NSAIDs are all considered DRPs.