Table 2.

Patient-, admission-, and hospital-level characteristics for patients with ESRD stratified by one, two, or at least three readmissions

CharacteristicsPatients with ESRD with One Readmission, n=73,868Patients with ESRD with Two Readmissions, n=11,835Patients with ESRD with Three or More Readmissions, n=1598
Patient characteristics
 Age, yr
  Median (IQR)63 (53–73)62 (50–72)55 (44–67)
  18–343670 (5)836 (7)208 (13)
  35–499847 (13)1935 (16)373 (23)
  50–6424,756 (34)3845 (33)533 (33)
  ≥6535,596 (48)5219 (44)484 (30)
 Sex
  Men37,240 (50)5951 (50)893 (56)
  Women36,628 (50)5884 (50)706 (44)
 Comorbidities
  AIDS514 (1)109 (1)35 (2)
  Alcohol abuse1342 (2)245 (2)63 (4)
  Congestive heart failure19,028 (26)3046 (26)440 (28)
  Chronic pulmonary disease17,156 (23)2937 (25)398 (25)
  Depression8486 (12)1270 (11)207 (13)
  Diabetes mellitus21,862 (30)3400 (29)375 (24)
  Drug abuse2597 (4)541 (5)135 (8)
  Hypertension61,096 (83)9785 (83)1308 (82)
  Liver disease4113 (6)762 (6)119 (7)
  Paralysis2350 (3)367 (3)47 (3)
  Peripheral vascular disease13,568 (18)2058 (17)218 (14)
  Pulmonary circulation disorder4157 (5)742 (6)81 (5)
  Valvular disease5185 (6)741 (6)69 (4)
  Anemia deficiency45,768 (62)7394 (63)1028 (64)
  Obesity9291 (13)1486 (13)150 (9)
 Median household income category for patient’s zip codea
  0th–25th27,762 (38)4676 (40)582 (36)
  26th–50th18,839 (26)2986 (25)435 (27)
  51th–75th15,301 (21)2395 (20)346 (22)
  76th–100th10,889 (15)1634 (14)208 (13)
Index admission characteristics
 Admission sourceb
  Nonemergency department12,760 (17)1692 (14)182 (11)
  Emergency department61,108 (83)10,143 (86)1416 (89)
 Admission type
  Nonelective67,958 (92)11,040 (93)1530 (96)
  Elective5820 (8)779 (7)69 (4)
 APR-DRG severity scalec
  Minor loss of function1184 (2)159 (1)33 (2)
  Moderate loss of function20,862 (28)3303 (28)488 (31)
  Major loss of function43,928 (60)7066 (60)908 (57)
  Extreme loss of function7882 (11)1308 (11)169 (11)
 Length of stay, d
  Median (IQR)3.8 (1.9–7.1)3.7 (1.8–7.3)3.2 (1.5–6.7)
  <219,790 (27)3265 (28)522 (33)
  3–419,213 (26)3072 (26)425 (27)
  5–611,749 (15)1746 (15)219 (14)
  ≥723,116 (31)3751 (32)433 (27)
 Primary payer type
  Medicare59,556 (81)9286 (79)1108 (69)
  Medicaid7987 (11)1623 (14)316 (20)
  Commercial4833 (7)663 (6)81 (5)
  Self-pay, no charge, or other1365 (2)243 (2)92 (6)
  Missing
 Discharge disposition
  Routine40,440 (55)6637 (56)916 (57)
  Short-term hospital658 (1)89 (1)14 (1)
  Skilled nursing facility17,144 (23)2401 (20)263 (16)
  Home health care13,964 (19)2281 (19)263 (17)
  Against medical advice1644 (2)425 (4)142 (9)
  Discharge alive (unknown)18 (0.02)3 (0.02)0 (0)
 Cost of Hospitalization in USD, Median (IQR)9774 (5649–176065)9664 (5477–17538)8669 (4954–16094)
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital bed sized,e
  Small5656 (8)957 (8)134 (8)
  Medium17,091 (23)2651 (22)354 (22)
  Large51,121 (69)8226 (70)1111 (70)
  • Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Frequencies (percentage) in the columns may not sum to 100%, because there might be missing data. All characteristics were statistically significantly except where indicated. IQR, interquartile range; APR-DRG, All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Group; USD, US dollars.

  • a This represents a quartile classification of the estimated median household income of residents in the patient’s zip code. These values are derived from zip code demographic data obtained from Claritas. The quartiles are identified by values of one to four, indicating the poorest to wealthiest populations, respectively.

  • b Healthcare Cost Utilization Project criteria for evidence of emergency department services include (1) emergency department revenue codes 450–459 on record, (2) positive emergency department charge when revenue center codes are not available, (3) emergency department Current Procedural Terminology codes of 99281–99285 reported on record, (4) condition code of P7 (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding for public reporting as of July 1, 2010), (5) point of origin of emergency department (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding from October 1, 2007 to June 30, 2010), and (6) admission source of emergency department (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding before October 1, 2007).

  • c The APR-DRGs are assigned using software developed by 3M Health Information Systems.

  • d Bed size categories are on the basis of hospital beds and specific to the hospital’s location and teaching status. Bed size assesses the number of short-term acute beds in a hospital. Hospital information was obtained from the American Heart Association Annual Survey of Hospitals.

  • e Characteristics were not significantly different.