Table 4.

Kidney outcomes measured during Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study year 10 (calendar years, 1995–1996) through year 20 (calendar years, 2005–2006) or year 25 (calendar years, 2010–2011) among participants with cumulative marijuana use (in marijuana-years) compared with never-users

Cumulative Marijuana Use (Marijuana-Yr)aEvents (n)5-Yr Person-Intervals or Visits (n)bUrine ACR, median (IQR)UnadjustedMultivariable-Adjusted
PRR (95% CI)P ValuecPRR (95% CI)P Valuec
Rapid eGFRcys declined
 Never used959951.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 >0–<0.523327090.90 (0.72 to 1.13)0.351.02 (0.80 to 1.30)0.87
 0.5–<212114110.90 (0.70 to 1.15)0.400.98 (0.73 to 1.30)0.87
 2–<5394620.90 (0.64 to 1.27)0.550.98 (0.66 to 1.45)0.92
 ≥5302381.18 (0.81 to 1.74)0.391.14 (0.73 to 1.78)0.56
P value trende0.420.66
Prevalent albuminuriaf
 Never used13419954 (3–7)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 >0–<0.526956044 (3–6)0.71 (0.54 to 0.93)0.01g0.80 (0.61 to 1.05)0.11
 0.5–<214029384 (3–6)0.76 (0.57 to 1.02)0.070.73 (0.54 to 1.00)0.05
 2–<5559804 (3–7)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)0.420.80 (0.55 to 1.17)0.26
 ≥5427404 (3–6)0.82 (0.53 to 1.27)0.380.79 (0.47 to 1.32)0.37
P value trende0.680.41
  • Definitions: rapid eGFRcys decline =≥3%/year; albuminuria = ACR≥30 mg/g. Multivariable model adjusted for age, race, sex, study site, income, education, employment, systolic BP, diastolic BP, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, physical activity, and cumulative years of tobacco smoking, heavy and binge alcohol use, and cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin use. CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; ACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g); IQR, interquartile range; PRR, prevalence rate ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; eGFRcys, eGFR as calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C equation.

  • a Cumulative marijuana use was evaluated at CARDIA years 10 (calendar years, 1995–1996) and 15 (calendar years, 2000–2001) for rapid eGFRcys decline and years 10 (calendar years, 1995–1996), 15 (calendar years, 2000–2001), 20 (calendar years, 2005–2006), and 25 (calendar years, 2010–2011) for prevalent albuminuria.

  • b 5-yr person-intervals for rapid eGFRcys decline and visits for prevalent albuminuria.

  • c P values for prevalence rate of outcome compared with the referent (never use).

  • d Measured between CARDIA years 10–15 and 15–20.

  • e P values for test for trend across categories of marijuana use.

  • f Measured at CARDIA years 10, 15, 20, and 25.

  • g P values <0.05.