Table 1.

Major clinical trials in pharmacotherapy of calcium nephrolithiasis

AuthorStudy DesignEnrollment Criteria (n)TreatmentDuration, yrTreatment/Placebo, nRecurrence Rate, %, Treated/PlaceboRelative Risk (95% CI) or P Value
Thiazide
 Borghi et al. (12)RCT, DBCaOx SF (75)Indapamide 2.5 mg daily343/1415/43P<0.001
 Brocks et al. (78)RCT, DBCaSF (62)Bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg three times a day1.633/2924/16P=0.45
 Ettinger et al. (13)RCT, DBCaOx (73)Chlorthalidone 25 or 50 mg daily319/23/3114/46P<0.01
  Fernández-Rodríguez et al. (77)RCTCaSF (100)Hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily350/50NRP=0.003
 Laerum (14)RCT, DBCaSF (50)Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg twice a day325/2520/48P=0.04
 Mortensen et al. (80)RCT, DBCaSF (22)Bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg three times a day212/1040/40P=1.0
 Ohkawa et al. (15)RCTCaSF (175)Triclormethiazide 4 mg daily2.1–2.282/93NRP<0.05
 Robertson et al. (76)RCT, DBCaSF (22)Bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg three times a day3.0–513/9NRP<0.01
 Scholz et al. (79)RCT, DBCaSF (51)Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg twice a day125/2624/23P=0.93
 Wilson et al. (75)RCTCaSF (44)Hydrochlorothiazide 100 mg daily2.823/2121/440.48 (0.07 to 0.92)
Citrate
 Barcelo et al. (16)RCT, DBHypoCit CaSF (57)Potassium citrate 30–60 mEq daily318/2028/80P<0.001
 Ettinger et al. (17)RCT, DBCaOx SF (64)Potassium magnesium citrate 60 mEq daily331/3313/640.16 (0.05 to 0.46)
 Hofbauer et al. (18)RCT, DBCaOx SF (50)Sodium potassium citrate to keep urine pH at 7–7.2325/2569/73P=0.65
 Lojanapiwat et al. (83)RCTCaSF (76)Potassium citrate 81 mEq daily139/378/46P<0.01
 Soygür et al. (82)RCTCaOx SF (90)Potassium citrate 50 mEq daily146/440/32P<0.05
  • 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; RCT, randomized controlled trial; DB, double blind; CaOx, calcium oxalate; SF, stone former; CaSF, calcium stone former; HypoCit, hypocitraturic; NR, not reported.