Table 2.

Comparison of baseline characteristics among the different cardiorenal groups

CharacteristicAcute Cardiorenal (Type 1 or 3)Cardiorenal Type 2Cardiorenal Type 4
N1707128677
Age, yr66±14a,b59±15b73±12
Men968 (57%)b63 (49%)301 (45%)
Black263 (15%)b16 (13%)65 (10%)
Hypertension1011 (59%)70 (55%)393 (58%)
Diabetes612 (36%)a,b30 (23%)198 (29%)
CAD1073 (63%)a,b62 (48%)369 (55%)
ACEI or ARB876/1588 (55%)a,b43/121 (36%)268/601 (45%)
β-Blocker1067/1588 (67%)b76/121 (63%)351/601 (58%)
Statin877/1588 (55%)a,b47/121 (39%)286/601 (48%)
Loop diuretics1016/1588 (64%)b72/121 (60%)b152/601 (25%)
Spironolactone183/1588 (12%)b9/121 (7%)b11/601 (2%)
Aspirin965/1588 (61%)b61/121 (50%)306/601 (51%)
Warfarin386/1588 (24%)b25/121 (21%)95/601 (16%)
Creat, mg/dl1.25 (1.00–1.64)a,b0.83 (0.70–1.01)b1.33 (1.12–1.68)
eGFR, ml/min per /1.73 m256±24a,b86±17b43±13
UACR, mg/g109 (30–540) (n=157)174 (9–1211) (n=12)68 (14–499) (n=56)
Hb, g/dl11.8±2.2 (n=975)11.5±2.1 (n=70)11.8±2.1 (n=320)
Albumin, g/dl3.7±0.6 (n=1392)a,b3.4±0.7 (n=113)b3.9±0.6 (n=529)
HbA1c, %6.7 (5.7–7.9) (n=83)7.3 (6.0–8.3) (n=7)6.7 (6.1–7.8) (n=34)
BNP, pg/ml419 (176–873) (n=642)b273 (123–709) (n=50)216 (90–510) (n=113)
Preserved EF734/1575 (47%)b63/114 (55%)b457/621 (74%)
LVEF, %50 (30–60) (n=1575)b55 (40–60) (n=114)b55 (50–60) (n=621)
LVd, cm5.1±1.1 (n=1440)a,b4.9±0.9 (n=111)b4.6±0.8 (n=557)
LVMi, g/m2113 (93–143) (n=440)a,b97 (76–108) (n=32)105 (81–126) (n=129)
LAd, cm4.4±0.9 (n=1534)a,b4.1±0.8 (n=89)4.1±0.8 (n=431)
PAP, mm Hg30 (23–40) (n=1143)b30 (21–40) (n=72)28 (23–36) (n=406)
RAP>6 cm H2O112/490 (23%)b8/32 (25%)b13/170 (8%)
Preserved RV function1069/1374 (78%)b78/92 (85%)b503/537 (94%)
Dilated RV336/1438 (23%)b27/103 (26%)b45/551 (8%)
RV hypertrophy58/665 (9%)1/45 (2%)16/266 (6%)
RWMA155/665 (23%)a,b5/56 (9%)47/362 (13%)
  • Percentages exclude missing values. The Bonferroni correction for post hoc tests was applied. N, number of patients; CAD, coronary artery disease; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; Creat, creatinine; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; n, number of patients with available data; Hb, hemoglobin; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; EF, ejection fraction; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVd, left ventricular diastolic diameter; LVMi, left ventricular mass index (corrected for body surface area); LAd, left atrium diameter; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; RAP, right atrial pressure; RV, right ventricular; RWMA, regional wall motion abnormalities.

  • a P<0.05 versus cardiorenal type 2.

  • b P<0.05 versus cardiorenal type 4.