Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with any form of the cardiorenal syndrome and the control groups

CharacteristicAny CardiorenalControl 1 (Stable HF)Control 2 (Stable CKD)
N251230722239
Age, yr68±14a,b62±1571±13
Men1332 (53%)a,b1746 (57%)1037 (46%)
Black344 (14%)a,b326 (11%)217 (10%)
Hypertension1474 (59%)b1753 (57%)1468 (66%)
Diabetes mellitus840 (33%)a,b761 (25%)516 (23%)
CAD1504 (60%)b1763 (57%)1064 (48%)
ACEI or ARB1187/2310 (51%)a,b1299/2889 (45%)857/2050 (42%)
β-Blocker1494/2310 (65%)a,b1963/2889 (68%)1109/2050 (54%)
Statin1210/2310 (52%)b1431/2889 (50%)944/2050 (46%)
Loop diuretics1240/2310 (54%)b1546/2889 (54%)387/2050 (19%)
Spironolactone203/2310 (9%)a,b157/2889 (5%)36/2050 (2%)
Aspirin1332/2310 (58%)b1691/2889 (59%)929/2050 (45%)
Warfarin506/2310 (22%)b612/2889 (21%)251/2050 (12%)
Creatinine, mg/dl1.26 (1.00–1.62)a,b0.87 (0.75–1.01)1.30 (1.11–1.56)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m254±24a,b85±1646±12
UACR, mg/g105 (25–545) (n=225)a,b22 (10–83) (n=152)31 (12–180) (n=215)
Hb, g/dl11.8±2.1 (n=1365)a,b12.4±2.2 (n=2098)12.1±2.0 (n=1232)
Albumin, g/dl3.8±0.6 (n=2034)b3.8±0.6 (n=2498)3.9±0.6 (n=1648)
HbA1c, %6.7 (5.8–7.8) (n=124)6.1 (5.7–7.4) (n=120)6.2 (5.7–7.1) (n=85)
BNP, pg/ml385 (157–791) (n=805)a,b244 (83–547) (n=864)134 (58–290) (n=199)
Preserved EF1254/2310 (54%)b1515/2855 (53%)1781/2113 (84%)
LVEF, %55 (35–60) (n=2310)b55 (35–60) (n=2855)60 (55–60) (n=2113)
LVd, cm5.0±1.0 (n=2108)b5.0±1.0 (n=2597)4.4±0.7 (n=1759)
LVMi, g/m2110 (90–136) (n=601)a,b102 (80–129) (n=927)91 (75–110) (n=473)
LAd, cm4.3±0.9 (n=2054)a,b4.1±0.8 (n=2509)3.9±0.7 (n=1720)
PAP, mm Hg29 (23–39) (n=1621)a,b26 (20–34) (n=1948)25 (20–31) (n=1380)
RAP>6 cm H2O133/692 (19%)b184/1190 (16%)39/702 (6%)
Preserved RV function1650/2003 (82%)b2149/2539 (85%)1702/1757 (97%)
Dilated RV408/2092 (20%)a,b410/2665 (15%)135/1799 (8%)
RV hypertrophy75/976 (8%)a,b63/1361 (5%)25/1005 (3%)
RWMA207/1083 (19%)b303/1441 (21%)100/1334 (8%)
  • The Bonferroni correction for post hoc tests was applied. HF, heart failure; N, number of patients in each group; CAD, coronary artery disease; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; n, number of patients with available data; Hb, hemoglobin; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; EF, ejection fraction; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVd, left ventricular diastolic diameter; LVMi, left ventricular mass index (corrected for body surface area); LAd, left atrium diameter; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; RAP, right atrial pressure; RV, right ventricular; RWMA, regional wall motion abnormalities.

  • a P<0.05 versus control group 1.

  • b P<0.05 versus control group 2.