Table 1.

Description of Dietary Intervention

Dietary MeasuresControl and Intervention
EnergyAdequate energy intake for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity level, and stage of CKD; if body mass index is >30, weight loss as appropriate
Protein0.75–1.0 g/kg for ideal body weight
SodiumIf hypertensive and CKD is progressive, sodium intake restricted to <100 mmol/d
PhosphateIf PO4>4.6 mg/dl, restriction of 800–1000 mg/d
FluidFluid restriction as indicated on the basis of CKD, edema, and BP
Frequency of dietetic reviewFortnightly review for the first 3 mo that alternated between face to face and telephone From 3 to 24 mo, monthly dietitian review that alternated between face to face and telephone Subjective Global Assessment undertaken every 6 mo
ControlIntervention
K+If serum K+ in the normal range, no restrictionProphylactic restriction of K+ intake to 1 mmol/kg for ideal body weight per day
If serum K+ > 6 mEq/L, restriction to 1 mmol/kg for ideal body weight per day
Other dietary interventionGeneral review of dietary intakeIndividualised dietary advice
Respond to general nutrition queriesProvided with written information on reducing K+ intake, including meal plans and recommendations for alternatives to high-K+ foods
Education on low-K+ cooking methods
  • PO4, Phosphate; K+, potassium.