Table 3.

Cox proportional hazards regression model for the association between baseline characteristics and the cardiorenal syndrome

Baseline ModelHR (95% CI) for All PatientsP ValueHR (95% CI) for Patients with Baseline CHF and/or CKDP Value
Age per 1 yr1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)<0.0011.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.97
Men1.13 (1.04 to 1.22)0.0041.04 (0.95 to 1.13)0.39
Black race1.41 (1.25 to 1.59)<0.0011.30 (1.15 to 1.48)<0.001
Hypertension0.85 (0.78 to 0.93)<0.0010.80 (0.73 to 0.87)<0.001
Diabetes1.29 (1.18 to 1.41)<0.0011.27 (1.16 to 1.39)<0.001
Coronary disease1.08 (0.99 to 1.18)0.071.10 (1.00 to 1.21)0.04
Heart failure2.12 (1.95 to 2.30)<0.0011.14 (1.04 to 1.25)<0.01
eGFR, per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m20.73 (0.72 to 0.75)<0.0010.83 (0.81 to 0.84)<0.001
Baseline model plus LVEF
 Group 4 (≥55%)ReferenceReference
 Group 3 (40%–54%)1.41 (1.26 to 1.58)<0.0011.30 (1.15 to 1.46)<0.001
 Group 2 (25%–39%)1.84 (1.61 to 2.10)<0.0011.66 (1.45 to 1.90)<0.001
 Group 1 (<25%)2.51 (2.15 to 2.93)<0.0012.24 (1.91 to 2.61)<0.001
Baseline model plus LVEF plus PAP
 PAP quartile 1ReferenceReference
 PAP quartile 21.07 (0.90 to 1.26)0.440.97 (0.81 to 1.16)0.75
 PAP quartile 31.41 (1.20 to 1.65)<0.0011.27 (1.07 to 1.51)<0.01
 PAP quartile 41.93 (1.66 to 2.25)<0.0011.67 (1.42 to 1.95)<0.001
Baseline plus LVEF plus PAP plus RV
 Normal RV diameterReferenceReference
 Dilated RV1.41 (1.23 to 1.60)<0.0011.47 (1.28 to 1.69)<0.001
  • HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; CHF, congestive heart failure; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; RV, right ventricle.