Table 1.

Patient-, admission-, and hospital-level characteristics for patients with ESRD without and with at least one readmission

CharacteristicsESRD Admissions with No Readmissions, n=303,326ESRD Admissions with at Least One Readmission, n=87,301
Patient characteristics
 Age, yr
  Median (IQR)63 (53–73)63 (52–73)
  18–3413,615 (5)4713 (5)
  35–4942,582 (14)12,155 (14)
  50–64101,130 (33)29,134 (33)
  ≥65145,999 (48)41,300 (47)
 Sex
  Men159,770 (53)44,084 (51)
  Women143,556 (47)43,218 (49)
 Comorbidities
  AIDS1773 (1)658 (1)
  Alcohol abuse5005 (2)1650 (2)
  Congestive heart failure68,346 (22)22,515 (29)
  Chronic pulmonary disease61,248 (20)20,491 (24)
  Depression30,474 (10)9963 (11)
  Diabetes mellitus87,777 (29)25,637 (29)
  Drug abuse7326 (2)3273 (4)
  Hypertension245,346 (81)72,189 (83)
  Liver disease13,498 (5)4993 (6)
  Paralysis8381 (3)2763 (3)
  Peripheral vascular disease50,683 (17)15,844 (18)
  Pulmonary circulation disorder14,804 (5)4980 (6)
  Valvular disease19,471 (6)5995 (7)
  Anemia deficiency185,722 (61)54,190 (62)
  Obesity40,898 (14)10,927 (13)
 Median household income category for patient’s zip codea
  0th–25th113,708 (38)33,020 (38)
  26th–50th76,410 (25)22,259 (26)
  51th–75th63,259 (21)18,043 (21)
  76th–100th44,926 (15)12,731 (15)
  Missing5022 (2)1248 (1)
Index admission characteristics
 Admission sourceb
  Nonemergency department67,571 (22)14,634 (17)
  Emergency department235,754 (78)72,668 (83)
 Admission type
  Nonelective267,983 (88)80,527 (92)
  Elective34,848 (12)6668 (8)
  Missing493 (0.2)106 (0.1)
 APR-DRG severity scalec
  Minor loss of function7209 (2)1376 (2)
  Moderate loss of function100,571 (33)24,653 (28)
  Major loss of function169,857 (56)51,902 (60)
  Extreme loss of function25,562 (8)9359 (11)
  Missing126 (0.04)12 (0.01)
 Length of stay, d
  Median (IQR)3.3 (1.7–6.2)3.8 (1.9–7.1)
  <293,214 (31)23,578 (27)
  3–483,085 (27)22,710 (26)
  5–647,387 (16)13,715 (16)
  ≥779,639 (26)27,300 (31)
 Primary payer type
  Medicare242,906 (80)69,949 (80)
  Medicaid27,913 (9)9931 (11)
  Commercial25,294 (8)5577 (6)
  Self-pay, no charge, or other6704 (2)1699 (2)
  Missing509 (0.2)144 (0.2)
 Discharge disposition
  Routine185,715 (61)47,993 (55)
  Short-term hospital2872 (1)761 (1)
  Skilled nursing facility60,132 (20)19,808 (23)
  Home health care49,465 (16)16,509 (19)
  Against medical advice5014 (2)2211 (3)
  Discharge alive (unknown)128 (0.04)20 (0.02)
 Cost of hospitalization in USD, median (IQR)8973 (5312–15,839)9727 (5609–17,572)
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital bed sized,e
  Small23,929 (8)6747 (8)
  Medium70,751 (23)20,096 (23)
  Large208,646 (69)60,458 (69)
  • Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Frequencies (percentages) in the columns may not sum to 100%, because there might be missing data. All characteristics were significantly different except where indicated. IQR, interquartile range; APR-DRG, All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Group; USD, US Dollars.

  • a This represents a quartile classification of the estimated median household income of residents in the patient’s zip code. These values are derived from zip code demographic data obtained from Claritas. The quartiles are identified by values of one to four, indicating the poorest to wealthiest populations, respectively.

  • b Healthcare Cost Utilization Project criteria for evidence of emergency department services include (1) emergency department revenue codes 450–459 on record, (2) positive emergency department charge when revenue center codes are not available, (3) emergency department Current Procedural Terminology codes of 99281–99285 reported on record, (4) condition code of P7 (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding for public reporting as of July 1, 2010), (5) point of origin of emergency department (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding from October 1, 2007 to June 30, 2010), and (6) admission source of emergency department (National Uniform Billing Committee preferred coding before October 1, 2007).

  • c The APR-DRGs are assigned using software developed by 3M Health Information Systems.

  • d Bed size categories are on the basis of hospital beds and specific to the hospital’s location and teaching status. Bed size assesses the number of short-term acute beds in a hospital. Hospital information was obtained from the American Heart Association Annual Survey of Hospitals.

  • e Characteristics were not significantly different.