Table 4.

Cox proportional hazards regression model for the association between the various forms of the cardiorenal syndrome and all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke

GroupMortalityNonfatal MIStroke
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Control group 2 (stable CKD)ReferenceReferenceReference
Control group 1 (stable HF)1.37 (1.25 to 1.50)<0.0011.18 (1.01 to 1.39)0.040.93 (0.74 to 1.17)0.53
Acute3.13 (2.72 to 3.61)<0.0013.36 (2.41 to 4.69)<0.0011.98 (1.35 to 2.91)0.001
Type 22.41 (0.90 to 6.44)0.08
Type 41.49 (1.20 to 1.85)<0.0012.21 (1.42 to 3.45)<0.0011.76 (1.05 to 2.95)0.03
Acute versus type 21.30 (0.48 to 3.50)0.60
Type 4 versus type 20.62 (0.23 to 1.69)0.35
Acute versus type 42.10 (1.65 to 2.68)<0.0011.52 (0.89 to 2.59)0.121.12 (0.61 to 2.06)0.71
  • No myocardial infarctions or strokes were observed in patients with chronic cardiorenal (type 2) syndrome after the landmark date. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, race, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; HF, heart failure.