Variable | Placebo | Vitamin D Treatment | Treatment versus Placebo^{a}^{,}^{b} | Treatment versus Placebo^{c} |
---|---|---|---|---|

Pulse wave velocity, m/s | n=30 | n=57 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 10.6 (3.6) | 12.3 (4.0) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 11.7 (3.5) | 11.8 (3.7) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 1.1 (−0.1 to 2.2) | −0.4 (−1.2 to 0.4) | −1.5 (−2.9 to −0.1) | |

P value^{a} | 0.04 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.7 (−0.3 to 1.7) | −0.2 (−0.9 to 0.5) | −0.9 (−2.1 to 0.4) | −0.9 (−1.9 to 0.2) |

P value^{b} | 0.17 | 0.10 | ||

Systolic BP, mmHg | n=35 | n=67 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 138.8 (16.6) | 137.7 (17.6) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 139.3 (10.8) | 139.8 (19.3) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 0.5 (−5.0 to 6.0) | 2.2 (−1.8 to 6.1) | 1.7 (−5.1 to 8.4) | |

P value^{a} | 0.63 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.9 (−3.9 to 5.6) | 2.0 (−1.5 to 5.4) | 1.1 (−4.8 to 7.0) | N/A |

P value^{b} | 0.70 | |||

Diastolic BP, mmHg | n=35 | n=67 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 73.7 (11.8) | 71.4 (11.6) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 75.1 (10.1) | 72.8 (11.8) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 1.4 (−1.6 to 4.4) | 1.4 (−0.8 to 3.6) | −0.0 (−3.8 to 3.7) | |

P value^{a} | 0.99 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 1.9 (−0.8 to 4.6) | 1.1 (−0.9 to 3.1) | −0.8 (−4.2 to 2.6) | −0.8 (−4.2 to 2.6) |

P value^{b} | 0.65 | 0.65 | ||

Urine ACR, ln(mg/g) | n=35 | n=63 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 5.3 (2.1) | 5.2 (1.8) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 5.4 (2.1) | 5.1 (2.0) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.1) | −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) | |

P value^{a} | 0.35 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.1) | −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) | −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) |

P value^{b} | 0.35 | 0.35 | ||

Calcium, mg/dl | n=35 | n=67 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 9.3 (0.4) | 9.3 (0.5) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 9.0 (1.2) | 9.4 (0.5) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.0) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | 0.4 (−0.1 to 0.7) | |

P value^{a} | 0.02 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.0) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | 0.4 (−0.1 to 0.7) | 0.4 (−0.1 to 0.7) |

P value^{b} | 0.02 | 0.02 | ||

Phosphate, mg/dl | n=35 | n=67 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 3.5 (0.7) | 3.5 (0.7) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 3.6 (0.8) | 3.6 (0.8) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 0.2 (−0.0 to 0.4) | 0.2 (0.0 to 0.3) | −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2) | |

P value^{a} | 0.99 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.2 (−0.0 to 0.4) | 0.2 (0.0 to 0.3) | −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2) | 0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2) |

P value^{b} | 0.98 | 0.96 | ||

PTH, ln(pg/ml) | n=35 | n=66 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 4.9 (0.7) | 4.6 (0.7) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 5.0 (0.8) | 4.3 (0.8) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 0.1 (−0.0 to 0.3) | −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.2) | −0.5 (−0.7 to −0.3) | |

P value^{a} | <0.001 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.2 (−0.0 to 0.3) | −0.4 (−0.5 to −0.2) | −0.5 (−0.7 to −0.3) | −0.5 (−0.7 to −0.4) |

P value^{b} | <0.001 | <0.001 | ||

FGF-23, ln(pg/ml) | n=33 | n=65 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 5.0 (0.7) | 4.7 (0.9) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 5.0 (0.9) | 4.9 (1.0) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | |

P value^{a} | 0.23 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) |

P value^{b} | 0.24 | 0.26 | ||

CRP, ln(mg/L) | n=34 | n=65 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 0.3 (1.0) | 0.5 (1.2) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 0.2 (1.0) | 0.5 (1.1) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2) | 0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2) | 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.5) | |

P value^{a} | 0.45 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | −0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) | 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) | 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5) | 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5) |

P value^{b} | 0.21 | 0.23 | ||

25(OH)D, ng/ml | n=33 | n=64 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 29.1 (11.4) | 26.3 (10.1) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 26.2 (11.6) | 59.0 (51.2) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | −2.9 (−17.1 to 11.4) | 32.7 (22.5 to 42.9) | 35.6 (18.1 to 53.1) | |

P value^{a} | <0.001 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b} | −2.6 (−17.0 to 11.7) | 32.6 (22.3 to 42.9) | 35.2 (17.5 to 53.0) | 35.2 (17.5 to 53.0) |

P value^{b} | <0.001 | <0.001 | ||

1,25(OH)_{2}D, pg/ml | n=33 | n=63 | ||

Unadjusted baseline, mean (SD) | 20.3 (7.4) | 22.8 (10.6) | ||

Unadjusted 6 mo, mean (SD) | 21.7 (7.6) | 27.3 (12.6) | ||

Unadjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo | 1.4 (−2.6 to 5.4) | 4.5 (1.6 to 7.4) | 3.1 (−1.8 to 8.1) | |

P value^{a} | 0.21 | |||

Adjusted change (95% CI) at 6 mo^{b}^{,}^{c} | 0.5 (−3.1 to 4.1) | 5.0 (2.4 to 7.6) | 4.5 (0.1 to 9.0) | 4.9 (0.9 to 8.8) |

P value^{b}^{,}^{c} | 0.05 | 0.02 |

SI conversion factors: to convert urine ACR to mg/mmol, multiply by 0.113; to convert calcium to mmol/L, multiply by 0.25; to convert phosphate to mmol/L, multiply by 0.323; to convert PTH to pmol/L, multiply by 0.106; to convert 25(OH)D to nmol/L, multiply by 2.496; to convert 1,25(OH)

_{2}D to pmol/L, multiply by 2.6. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ln, natural logarithm; PTH, parathyroid hormone; FGF-23, fibroblast growth factor 23; CRP, C-reactive protein; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25(OH)_{2}D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.↵a Unadjusted mean change, 95% CI, and

*P*value for treatment effects compared using the*t*test.↵b Adjusted mean change, 95% CI, and

*P*value for treatment effects, with the respective baseline value as covariate, compared using analysis of covariance.↵c Mixed model results: estimates, 95% CI, and

*P*value for treatment effects reported. All models include the treatment effect and respective baseline variable. The participants and treatment were modeled as random effects.