Table 4.

Results by outcome for living donor observational studies

ReferenceDescription of ResultsDirection of EffectP Value
No. or rate of living donors
 Kwak et al. (28): exchange programOver the study period of 6 yr, an increase of 61 living donors (n=411) with introduction of exchange program+NR
 Park et al. (29): exchange programOver the study period, an increase from 2.2% (four of 180) to 31% (38 of 86) of living donor transplants with introduction of exchange program+NR
 Roodnat et al. (30): exchange programOver the study period, an increase of 35 donors (n=581) with the introduction of exchange program+NR
 Cole et al. (31): exchange programOver the study period, an increase of 158 donors (n=2219) with the introduction of exchange program+NR
 Fonouni et al. (34): multidisciplinary teamOver the study period, an increase of 48% in living donors (from 18 to 42) with multidisciplinary team+NR
 González Monte et al. (32): promotion programAn increase in the rate of donation from 0.8% (16 of 1964) to 4.4% (45 of 1022) through a living donor promotion program+<0.01
 Cankaya et al. (33): educationMore preemptive living donations in the education group (26 of 61) than the noneducation group (five of 27)+<0.001
 Bendorf et al. (39): presumed consentA decrease in living donor kidney rates of 8.7 pmp in countries with presumed consent0.003
 Cardinal et al. (35): multidisciplinary teamAn increase from 50 to 73 in number of living donors (incident rate difference, 0.029; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.06) with the creation of a multidisciplinary team+NR
 Garonzik-Wang et al. (38): living donor championMore living donors in the living donor champion group (four of 15) than in the control group (zero of 15)+<0.001
 Lavee et al. (36): law to prevent transplant tourismAn increase in the number of living donors from 71 to 117 after enactment of law+0.003
 Boas et al. (37): law to prevent transplant tourismAn increase in the number of living donors from 211 (prelaw) to 364 (postlaw)+<0.001
No. of living donor evaluations
 Garonzik-Wang et al. (38): living donor championMore living donor evaluations in the living donor champion group (three of 15) than in the control group (zero of 15)+<0.001
 Romagnoli et al. (40): ABO-incompatible programAn increase of 15% (12 of 78) in living donor evaluations with introduction of ABO-incompatible program+NR
No. of contacts with transplant center from potential living donors
 Cardinal et al. (35): multidisciplinary teamAn increase in the number of contacts from 191 to 304 (incident rate difference, 0.143; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.20) with the creation of a multidisciplinary team+NR
Discussion of living donation
 Garonzik-Wang et al. (38): living donor championIncreased comfort of approaching a family member in the living donor champion group+0.07
  • +, indicates a positive direction of effect in favour of the intervention; NR, not reported; pmp, per million population; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.