Table 3.

Associations of additional covariates with all-cause mortality, technique failure, and the composite of death and technique failure

VariableDeathTechnique FailureDeath and Technique Failure
No. of events269503772
AHR (95% CI)AHR (95% CI)AHR (95% CI)
Age, yr
 18–34 (ref)111
 35–543.40 (1.3 to 8.6)1.0 (0.65 to 1.56)1.17 (0.79 to 1.73)
 55–645.90 (2.30 to 15)1.09 (0.68 to 1.76)1.49 (0.99 to 2.3)
 65–746.40 (2.40 to 16.9)2.34 (1.43 to 3.9)2.57 (1.65 to 3.99)
 >7516.5 (6.10 to 44.70)1.47 (0.79 to 2.74)2.71 (1.70 to 4.3)
Race
 White (ref)111
 Asian1.18 (0.60 to 2.30)0.88 (0.51 to 1.50)0.96 (0.64 to 1.43)
 Black1.90 (0.75 to 4.80)1.47 (0.87 to 2.49)1.49 (0.92 to 2.30)
 Other0.72 (0.41 to 1.29)1.70 (1.16 to 2.50)1.43 (1.01 to 2.02)
Men1.1 (0.76 to 1.50)0.85 (0.66 to 1.10)0.91 (0.73 to 1.13)
Primary diagnosis
 GN0.23 (0.12 to 0.45)0.60 (0.39 to 0.93)0.48 (0.33 to 0.69)
 Diabetes111
 Renovascular disease0.37 (0.21 to 0.65)0.89 (0.60 to 1.34)0.70 (0.51 to 0.97)
 Polycystic kidney disease0.15 (0.06 to 0.38)0.58 (0.35 to 0.97)0.42 (0.27 to 0.66)
 Failed kidney transplant0.37 (0.13 to 1.04)0.53 (0.27 to 1.06)0.47 (0.26 to 0.83)
 Other0.40 (0.23 to 0.70)0.99 (0.67 to 1.48)0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)
Comorbid conditions
 Diabetes2.7 (1.60 to 4.40)1.23 (0.80 to 1.9)1.54 (1.1 to 2.14)
 CADa1.2 (0.80 to 1.70)0.95 (0.67 to 1.36)1.02 (0.79 to 1.33)
 PVD2.0 (1.30 to 3.10)1.0 (0.65 to 1.58)1.39 (1.03 to 1.88)
 Previous CVA1.0 (0.60 to 1.70)1.24 (0.58 to 2.67)1.14 (0.67 to 1.94)
 Current smokera1.8 (0.99 to 3.40)1.62 (1.17 to 2.25)1.67 (1.27 to 2.21)
Vascular access type
 AV access0.46 (0.29 to 0.71)0.76 (0.52 to 1.10)0.65 (0.48 to 0.87)
 CVC (ref)111
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.50.89 (0.4 to 1.97)0.70 (0.26 to 1.89)0.71 (0.36 to 1.38)
 18.5–24.9 (ref)111
 25–29.90.64 (0.40 to 1.00)1.06 (0.73 to 1.54)0.91 (0.68 to 1.22)
 ≥300.74 (0.43 to 1.38)1.16 (0.83 to 1.60)1.03 (0.79 to 1.34)
ESRD vintage, per yr1.1 (0.99 to 1.18)1.04 (0.99 to 1.10)1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)
Prior RRT
 None0.52 (0.18 to 1.44)2.09 (1.1 to 3.97)1.55 (0.88 to 2.73)
 In-center hemodialysis111
 PD0.82 (0.41 to 1.66)0.70 (0.41 to 1.19)0.76 (0.49 to 1.17)
 Kidney transplant0.26 (0.03 to 2.30)0.29 (0.04 to 2.39)0.29 (0.06 to 1.42)
Facility size
 Small (1–4)0.31 (0.12 to 0.82)0.74 (0.39 to 1.43)0.60 (0.33 to 1.08)
 Medium (5–9)0.64 (0.41 to 1.00)0.66 (0.45 to 0.96)0.63 (0.47 to 0.85)
 Large (>9)111
Home hemodialysis modality
 Conventional111
 Short daily0.69 (0.40 to 1.19)1.09 (0.77 to 1.05)0.97 (0.72 to 1.30)
 Slow nocturnal1.03 (0.66 to 1.59)0.99 (0.70 to 1.42)0.98 (0.74 to 1.30)
Neighborhood income quintile (per quintile increase)0.94 (0.82 to 1.08)0.89 (0.81 to 0.97)0.90 (0.83 to 0.97)
Distance from the dialysis facility, km
 <15111
 15–250.87 (0.51 to 1.49)0.74 (0.50 to 1.09)0.75 (0.55 to 1.04)
 26–500.64 (0.35 to 1.16)0.54 (0.34 to 0.85)0.55 (0.37 to 0.80)
 51–751.6 (0.85 to 3.05)0.54 (0.27 to 1.09)0.74 (0.46 to 1.21)
 76–1001.04 (0.51 to 2.10)1.32 (0.83 to 2.10)1.25 (0.83 to 1.88)
 >1001.16 (0.68 to 1.96)0.72 (0.48 to 1.05)0.82 (0.61 to 1.10)
  • AHR, adjusted hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; ref, referent group; CAD, coronary artery disease; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; AV, arteriovenous; CVC, central venous catheter; PD, peritoneal dialysis.

  • a All models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass, vascular access type, dialysis vintage, home hemodialysis modality, region, facility size, distance, income quintile, primary diagnosis, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking status.