Table 1.

Patient characteristics at home hemodialysis initiation in Canada during the period 1996–2012

VariableYr of Dialysis InitiationP Value
1996–2002 (n=233)2003–2007 (n=568)2008–2012 (n=1068)
Age, yr, mean±SD49±1352±1453±14<0.001
Race, n (%)
 White175 (75)392 (69)740 (69)0.001
 Asian9 (4)49 (9)63 (6)
 Black12 (5)25 (4)71 (7)
 Other15 (6)61 (11)139 (13)
 Unknown22 (9)41 (7)55 (5)
Women, %72 (31)182 (32)374 (35)0.2
Primary diagnosis, n (%)
 GN48 (21)109 (19)176 (17)0.01
 Diabetes49 (21)119 (21)292 (27)
 Renal vascular disease23 (10)69 (12)111 (10)
 Polycystic kidney disease37 (16)57 (10)120 (11)
 Failed kidney transplant8 (3)41 (7)83 (8)
 Other45 (19)99 (17)175 (16)
 Unknown23 (10)74 (13)111 (10)
Comorbid conditions, n (%)
 Diabetesa12(5)37 (7)97 (9)0.05
 Coronary artery disease84 (36)174 (31)281 (26)0.04
 Peripheral vascular disease24 (10)49 (9)69 (7)0.07
 Previous CVA14 (6)27 (5)58 (5)0.6
 Smokerb24 (10)46 (8)108 (10)0.4
Vascular access type, n (%)c
 AV access50 (22)214 (38)458 (43)<0.001
 CVC24 (10)149(26)415(39)
 Unknownc159 (68)205 (36)195 (18)
BMI, median (IQR), kg/m225.1 (22.5–29.6)26.6 (22.7–31.5)27.9 (23.8–33.7)<0.001
ESRD vintage, yr, median (IQR)0.8 (0.3–1.9)1.3 (0.3–3.1)0.9 (0.2–3.1)0.003
Prior RRT, n (%)
 None7 (3)50 (9)113 (11)<0.01
 In-center HD207 (89)487 (86)880 (82)
 PD18 (8)24 (4)65 (6)
 Kidney transplant1 (0.4)7 (1)10 (1)
Facility size n (%)
 Small (≤1–4 patients)34 (15)23 (4)47 (4)<0.001
 Medium (5–9 patients)68 (29)93 (16)240 (23)
 Large (≥9 patients)131 (56)452 (80)781 (73)
Home hemodialysis modality, n (%)
 Conventional181 (78)216 (38)532 (50)<0.001
 Short daily5 (2)104 (18)166 (16)
 Slow nocturnal47 (20)248 (44)370 (35)
Neighborhood income quintile, n (%)
 143 (19)73 (13)156 (15)0.02
 241 (18)96 (17)180 (17)
 349 (21)124 (22)213 (20)
 429 (12)132 (23)257 (24)
 563 (27)134 (24)244 (23)
 Unknown8 (3)9 (2)18 (2)
Distance (in km) from the dialysis facility, n (%)
 <15109 (47)260 (46)536 (50)0.06
 15–2520 (9)67 (12)146 (14)
 25–5030 (13)78 (14)145 (14)
 50–7513 (6)35 (6)52 (5)
 75–10014 (6)35 (6)39 (4)
 >10040 (17)86 (15)133 (13)
 Unknown7 (3)7 (1)17 (2)
  • CVA, cerebrovascular accident; AV, arteriovenous; CVC, central venous catheter; BMI, body mass index; IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Diabetes as a comorbidity among those without presumed kidney disease.

  • b Smoking status at ESRD initiation.

  • c Data on vascular access type were not collected until 2001.