Variable^{a} | Coefficient Interpretation | Coefficient Estimate | Coefficient SEM | P Value |
---|---|---|---|---|

APOL1 high risk | Difference in average baseline eGFR (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^{2}) among African ancestry participants with APOL1 high-risk alleles compare with whites | −2.95 | 1.05 | 0.005 |

APOL1 low risk | Difference in average baseline eGFR (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^{2}) among African ancestry participants with APOL1 low-risk alleles compare with whites | −3.77 | 0.62 | <0.001 |

Years | Average eGFR slope (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^{2} per year) among whites | −0.74 | −0.07 | <0.001 |

Years × APOL1 high risk | Difference in average eGFR slope (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^{2} per year) among African ancestry participants with APOL1 high-risk alleles and whites | −1.50 | 0.20 | <0.001 |

Years × APOL1 low risk | Difference in average eGFR slope (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^{2} per year) among African ancestry participants with APOL1 low-risk alleles and whites | −0.58 | 0.11 | <0.001 |

Results are the estimated fixed effects from a random slope model fit for the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study example in model 2.

↵a Model 2:

*APOL1*is the exposure variable of the genotype in conjunction with race with three categories (0, white; 1,*APOL1*low risk; and 2,*APOL1*high risk), with whites as the reference group. The random effects include both random intercept and random slope to account for subject-specific deviation from the population-average trajectory.