Table 2.

Predictors of frailty and change in frailty score over time

VariableModel 1aModel 2
Difference in Frailty Score, PointsChange in Frailty, Points per YearbDifference in Frailty Score, PointsChange in Frailty, Points per Yearb
Age, per 10 yr0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5)0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1)0.2 (0.1 to 0.3)0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1)
Women0.3 (−0.0 to 0.6)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3)0.4 (0.0 to 0.7)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)
Race, nonwhite0.1 (−0.3 to 0.6)−0.0 (−0.3 to 0.3)0.0 (−0.4 to 0.5)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.3)
Ethnicity, Hispanic0.6 (0.0 to 1.1)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.2)0.6 (0.1 to 1.2)−0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2)
BMI, kg/m2
 <20−0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.6)0.0 (−0.7 to 0.6)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.7)
 20 to <25ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 25 to <300.0 (−0.4 to 0.4)0.2 (0.0 to 0.4)0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4)0.2 (0.0 to 0.5)
 ≥300.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)0.2 (−0.1 to 0.4)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.4)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.4)
Diabetes0.7 (0.3 to 1.0)−0.1 (−0.3 to 0.1)0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)−0.1 (−0.3 to 0.1)
ASHD0.2 (−0.2 to 0.5)0.1 (−0.2 to 0.2)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2)
Heart failure0.3 (0.0 to 0.6)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2)0.3 (−0.1 to 0.6)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2)
Dialysis via catheter0.3 (−0.1 to 0.7)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.7)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)
Serum albumin, g/dl−1.1 (−1.5 to −0.7)−0.4 (−0.8 to −0.1)−0.6 (−1.1 to −0.2)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.3)
Hospitalization in last year0.6 (0.3 to 1.0)0.6 (0.3 to 0.8)
IL-6, pg/ml0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)0.3 (0.1 to 0.4)
nPCR, g/kg−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1)−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1)
  • There were n=732 patients with complete data for all covariates. BMI, body mass index; ASHD, atherosclerotic heart disease; nPCR, normalized protein catabolic rate.

  • a -, these variables were not included in model 1.

  • b For nonvarying predictors, change in frailty represents the interaction term between time and each variable. For time-updated variables, this column shows the association with the change in that variable over time.