Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of main study participants (n=6119)

Clinical CharacteristicsAll, n=6119Missing Data, %Complications during the First 180 d from the First Permanent Access PlacementP Value
Neither, n=3493Noninfectious Only, n=2084Any Infectious, n=542
Age, yr63.7 (14.9)30 (0.49)64.0 (14.9)63.7 (14.9)62.0 (14.6)0.02
Men3540 (57.9)14 (0.23)2036 (58.3)1212 (58.2)292 (53.9)0.40
Smoking
 Never2475 (40.5)214 (3.49)1406 (40.3)838 (40.2)231 (42.6)0.03
 Current1122 (18.3)653 (18.7)365 (17.5)104 (19.2)
 Previous1172 (19.2)626 (17.9)433 (20.8)113 (20.9)
 Unknown1136 (18.6)687 (19.7)372 (17.9)77 (14.2)
Race
 White3951 (64.6)02130 (61.0)1428 (68.5)393 (72.5)<0.001
 Black919 (15.0)441 (12.6)382 (18.3)96 (17.7)
 Asian1002 (16.4)781 (22.4)200 (9.60)21 (3.87)
 Other247 (4.04)141 (4.04)74 (3.55)32 (5.90)
Access type
 Fistula2263 (37.0)01419 (40.6)719 (34.5)125 (23.1)<0.001
 Graft796 (13.0)333 (9.53)389 (18.7)74 (13.7)
 Catheter3060 (50.0)1741 (49.8)976 (46.8)343 (63.3)
Regiona
 North America3422 (55.9)01753 (50.2)1337 (64.2)332 (61.3)<0.001
 Europe1682 (27.5)963 (27.6)545 (26.2)174 (32.1)
 Australasia1015 (16.6)777 (22.2)202 (9.7)36 (6.7)
Dialysis durationb4809 (78.6)02579 (73.8)1789 (85.8)441 (81.4)<0.001
Timing of access insertionc4186 (68.4)02301 (65.9)1500 (72)385 (71)<0.001
Complications within 30 d1293 (21.1)01012 (48.6)281 (51.9)<0.001
Coronary artery disease2676 (43.7)25 (0.41)1445 (41.4)974 (46.7)257 (47.4)<0.001
Congestive heart failure2537 (41.5)75 (1.23)1371 (39.2)919 (44.1)247 (45.6)<0.001
Other cardiovascular disease1846 (30.2)59 (0.96)982 (28.1)691 (33.2)173 (31.9)<0.001
Hypertension4985 (81.5)63 (1.03)2780 (79.6)1740 (83.5)465 (85.8)<0.001
Cerebrovascular disease1015 (16.6)69 (1.13)568 (16.3)351 (16.8)96 (17.7)0.80
Peripheral vascular disease1554 (25.4)67 (1.09)840 (24.1)565 (27.1)149 (27.5)0.90
Diabetes2880 (47.1)72 (1.18)1604 (45.9)982 (47.1)294 (54.2)<0.01
Cancer827 (13.5)101 (1.65)447 (12.8)316 (15.2)64 (11.8)0.06
  • Summary measures: Mean (SD) is used to summarize age (in years); absolute N and relative (percentage) frequencies are used for all categorical variables. —, not applicable.

  • a Region: North America includes Canada and the United States (49%); Europe includes Sweden, Belgium, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom; and Australasia includes Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.

  • b Dialysis duration ≤30 versus 31–180 d at the time that participants entered the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

  • c Permanent access insertion before or within 30 d versus at >30 d of hemodialysis therapy. Clinical characteristics after multiple imputation for missing data are reported in Supplemental Table 1.