Table 4.

Baseline and pregnancy characteristics according to baseline renal function

CharacteristicsNo CKDa (n=516)CKD Stage 1 (n=87)CKD Stage 2 (n=7)P Value
Age, yr32 (30–35)34 (32–37)33 (30–33)0.43
Body mass index, kg/m220.1 (18.8–22.6)21.1 (19.4–23.8)18.2 (16.9–23.5)0.004
Baseline sCr, mg/dl0.64 (0.58–0.73)0.62 (0.52–0.65)0.91 (0.91–0.94)<0.001
Baseline eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2117.0 (105.5–122.2)120.4 (114.1–127.4)82.4 (81.7–82.7)
Baseline albuminuria (dipstick)0 (0–0)1+ (1+–2+)2+ (2+–2+)<0.001
Multiparity309 (59.9)56 (64.4)6 (85.7)0.18
No. of full-term births history1 (0–1)0 (0–1)1 (0–1)0.14
No. of preterm births history0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0.40
Presence of stillbirth/miscarriage history178 (34.5)32 (36.8)6 (85.7)0.08
Previous history of hypertension98 (19.0)40 (46.0)6 (85.7)<0.001
Midterm sCr, mg/dl0.49 (0.45–0.54)0.44 (0.35–0.54)0.73 (0.72–0.79)0.002
Midterm eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2123.5 (114.6–141.2)124.2 (113.8–131.7)92.5 (88.3–102.2)0.001
Weight gain until delivery, kg11.6 (9.2–13.6)10.0 (8.0–14.2)10.0 (7.0–11.3)0.07
Hypertension during pregnancy45 (8.7)20 (23.0)5 (71.4)<0.001
Albuminuria (dipstick)b<0.001
 (−)412 (79.8)43 (49.4)2 (28.6)
 1+69 (13.4)11 (12.6)0 (0.0)
 ≥2+35 (6.8)33 (37.9)5 (71.4)
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy13 (3.7)3 (3.4)1 (14.3)0.53
Cesarean section171 (33.1)33 (37.9)1 (14.3)0.82
Composite outcome113 (21.9)33 (37.9)4 (57.1)<0.001
 Preterm birth, <37 wk84 (16.3)29 (33.3)3 (42.9)<0.001
  Moderate to late preterm, 32 to <37 wk68 (13.2)21 (24.1)1 (14.3)0.02
  Very preterm, 28 to <32 wk16 (3.1)8 (9.2)2 (28.6)<0.001
  Gestational age, wk38 (36–39)38 (35–40)37 (33–39)0.14
 Low birth weight, <2.5 kg73 (14.1)18 (20.7)2 (28.6)0.06
  Birth weight, kg3.00 (2.52–3.34)2.86 (2.12–3.08)2.95 (2.89–2.98)0.05
 Preeclampsia20 (3.9)14 (16.1)1 (14.3)<0.001
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%). Baseline sCr and eGFR values were available in 718 women and, combining urinalysis results, 610 women were stratified into each CKD stage group in the table. sCr, serum creatinine.

  • a Alteration in eGFR according to time phases of mothers without CKD evidence (n=516) are separately analyzed in Figure 3.

  • b Maximum values during pregnancy by urine dipstick method.