Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of all participants by tertiles of mean kidney length

CharacteristicsMean Kidney LengthP Value
First Tertile (n=3567)Second Tertile (n=3562)Third Tertile (n=3122)
Range of kidney length, cm7.8–10.810.9–11.611.7–16.1
Men1773 (50%)2438 (68%)2604 (83%)<0.001
Age, yr59 (13)56 (12)54 (11)<0.001
History of vascular disease
 Cerebrovascular disease813 (23%)699 (20%)537 (17%)<0.001
 Coronary heart disease1415 (40%)1474 (41%)1317 (42%)0.10
 Peripheral arterial disease483 (14%)433 (12%)397 (13%)0.21
 Abdominal aortic aneurysm203 (6%)193 (5%)190 (6%)0.50
Diabetes mellitus531 (15%)635 (18%)808 (26%)<0.001
Smoking, current or past2455 (69%)2597 (74%)2413 (78%)<0.001
Body height, cm170 (9)175 (8)179 (8)<0.001
Waist circumference, cm89 (12)94 (12)101 (13)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m226 (4)27 (4)28 (5)<0.001
Body surface area, m21.8 (0.2)2.0 (0.2)2.1 (0.2)<0.001
Systolic BP, mmHg142 (23)141 (21)142 (20)<0.01
Diastolic BP, mmHg82 (13)83 (12)84 (12)<0.001
Intima media thickness, mm0.85 [0.70–1.00]0.83 [0.70–0.98]0.83 [0.70–0.98]0.14
Cholesterol, mg/dl200 (52)198 (53)197 (56)0.07
Triglycerides, mg/dl23 (17–34)25 (18–36)28 (19–42)<0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl120 (46)119 (46)117 (45)0.02
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl52 (16)49 (15)45 (14)<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.1 (0.3)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)<0.001
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m272 (18)80 (17)86 (17)<0.001
Albuminuria520 (15%)496 (15%)506 (17%)0.02
HbA1c, %5.9 (1.0)6.0 (1.0)6.3 (1.3)<0.001
Glucose-lowering drugs316 (9%)373 (10%)483 (15%)<0.001
BP-lowering drugs2412 (68%)2309 (65%)2118 (68%)0.01
 ACE inhibitors969 (27%)982 (28%)914 (29%)0.13
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers405 (11%)384 (11%)368 (12%)0.43
 Lipid-lowering drugs1933 (54%)1981 (56%)1759 (56%)0.19
  • Values are presented as number (percentage), mean (SD), or median [interquartile range]. HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme.