Table 2.

Costs included in the Markov models

EventCost, $
AVF placement (4)888.37
AVG placement (4)643.04
CVC placement (4)318.90
CVC removal (4)154.39
Hospitalization for access infection (4)23,137.59
Percutaneous procedure (4)508.04
Adjusted hospital costs (5)a8601.19
Death (24)10,917.36
  • Data sources for costs are indicated by references. AVF, arteriovenous fistula; AVG, arteriovenous graft; CVC, central venous catheter.

  • a Adjusted hospital costs are defined as total cost =1/2 outpatient costs +1/2 inpatient costs.