Characteristic | eGFR ml/min per 1.73 m^{2} | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

≥90 (n=36,816) | 60–89 (n=168,115) | 45–59 (n=48,024) | 30–44 (n=20,240) | 15–29 (n=5202) | Dialysis (n=4528) | |

Age, yr | 68.8±3.5 | 74.2±6.5^{b} | 77.5±7.2^{b} | 79.8±7.5^{b} | 80.5±7.9^{b} | 75.7±6.4^{b} |

Women, n (%) | 21,498 (58.4) | 93,576 (55.7) | 29,780 (62.0) | 13,424 (66.3)^{b} | 3378 (64.9)^{b} | 2104 (46.5)^{b} |

Income, lowest quintile, n (%) | 6894 (18.7) | 31,460 (18.7) | 9662 (20.1) | 4497 (22.2) | 1222 (23.5)^{b} | 1095 (24.2)^{b} |

Rural residence,^{c} n (%) | 3163 (8.6) | 16,729 (10.0) | 5499 (11.5) | 2529 (12.5)^{b} | 758 (14.6)^{b} | 593 (13.1)^{b} |

eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m^{2} | 93.6±3.4 | 76.3±8.8^{b} | 53.4±4.2^{b} | 38.9±4.2^{b} | 24.7±3.9^{b} | |

Comorbidities | ||||||

Charlson comorbidity index^{d} | 0 (0–0) | 0 (0–0) | 2 (2–2)^{b} | 2 (2–2)^{b} | 2 (2–3)^{b} | 3 (2–5)^{b} |

Coronary artery disease, n (%) | 10,296 (28.0) | 58,468 (34.8)^{b} | 20,544 (42.8)^{b} | 10,089 (49.8)^{b} | 2856 (54.9)^{b} | 2641 (58.3)^{b} |

Diabetes mellitus, n (%) | 13,938 (37.9) | 53,460 (31.8)^{b} | 15,893 (33.1) | 7604 (37.6) | 2272 (43.7)^{b} | 2474 (54.6)^{b} |

Heart failure, n (%) | 2060 (5.6) | 14,513 (8.6)^{b} | 7524 (15.7)^{b} | 4987 (24.6)^{b} | 1810 (34.8)^{b} | 2128 (47.0)^{b} |

Hypertension, n (%) | 21,638 (58.8) | 107,756 (64.1)^{b} | 35,789 (74.5)^{b} | 16,400 (81.0)^{b} | 4342 (83.5)^{b} | 3768 (83.2)^{b} |

Peripheral vascular disease, n (%) | 336 (0.9) | 1933 (1.1) | 1011 (2.1) | 672 (3.3)^{b} | 274 (5.3)^{b} | 484 (10.7)^{b} |

Medications | ||||||

Loop diuretics, n (%) | 1442 (3.9) | 10,158 (6.0) | 6038 (12.6)^{b} | 4645 (22.9)^{b} | 2045 (39.3)^{b} | 2526 (55.8)^{b} |

Potassium-sparing diuretics, n (%) | 979 (2.7) | 6006 (3.6) | 3546 (7.4)^{b} | 2305 (11.4)^{b} | 610 (11.7)^{b} | 257 (5.7)^{b} |

Thiazide diuretics, n (%) | 5703 (15.5) | 30,034 (17.9) | 11,043 (23.0)^{b} | 5262 (26.0)^{b} | 1257 (24.2)^{b} | 960 (21.2)^{b} |

Data are presented as number (%) except for age and eGFR which are presented as mean±SD. The Charlson comorbidity index is presented as a median (interquartile range).

↵a Standardized differences were used to compare baseline characteristics between the referent group (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m

^{2}) and the other five groups (eGFR 60–89 ml/min per 1.73 m^{2}, 45–59, 30–44, 15–29, and chronic dialysis). Standardized differences are less sensitive to sample size than traditional hypothesis tests. They provide a measure of the difference between groups divided by the pooled SD; a value >10% is interpreted as a meaningful difference between groups.↵b Denotes a meaningful difference (>10%).

↵c Refers to location of residence with a population size <10,000 persons.

↵d All individuals with an eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m

^{2}with a Charlson comorbidity index of 0 were given a score of 2 and those with a score of 1 were given a score of 3; one of the variables in the Charlson comorbidity index is presence of kidney disease which automatically results in these individuals receiving a score of 2.