Table 2.

Barriers and facilitators to CKD self-management by ICF domain and number of focus groups reporting

Barriers and FacilitatorsNumber of Focus Groups
Health condition factors
 Symptoms
  Barrier: Asymptomatic nature of CKD6
  Barrier: Symptoms across multiple chronic conditions5
 Treatment advice
  Barrier: Unclear treatment goals6
  Barrier: Unclear treatment regimen5
  Barrier: Discordance across multiple chronic conditions5
  Facilitator: Concordance across multiple chronic conditions5
  Facilitator: Prioritization of health conditions4
Personal factors
 Self-regulation
  Barrier: Poor self-regulation6
  Facilitator: Planning and organization5
  Facilitator: Adjusting to new tastes and behaviors5
 Empowerment
  Barrier: External locus of control5
  Barrier: Poor self-efficacy1
  Facilitator: Information seeking6
  Facilitator: Identification of self-care alternatives4
  Facilitator: Internal locus of control4
Environmental factors
 Support and relationships
  Barrier: Deficient social support5
  Barrier: Deficient provider support5
  Facilitator: Positive social support4
 Services, systems, and policies
  Barrier: Deficient coordination of care across multiple chronic conditions5
  Facilitator: Positive provider support3
  Facilitator: Coordination of care across multiple chronic conditions3
 Healthy food product market availability
  Barrier: Lack of availability and access3
  • ICF, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.