Table 1.

Characteristics of focus group participants (n=30)

CharacteristicsMedian (Range) or N (%)
Age75.1 (70.1–90.7)
Black race18 (60.0)
Men29 (96.7)
Income<$20,000/yr10 (33.3)
Low health literacya7 (23.3)
Confidenceb10.5 (6.0–18.0)
Life-space mobilityc76.0 (43.5–120.0)
Married15 (50.0)
Social supportd20.0 (12.0–25.0)
Self-reported health (excellent, very good, good)17 (56.7)
Hypertension27 (90.0)
Diabetes20 (66.7)
Heart failure7 (23.3)
Arthritis22 (73.3)
Gout16 (53.3)
Depression/PTSD6 (20.0)
Number of medications12.5 (3.0–29.0)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2
 45–594 (13.3)
 30–4418 (60.0)
 <308 (26.7)
CKD trajectory
 Stable9 (30.0)
 Linear decline10 (33.3)
 Nonlinear11 (36.7)
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, mg/g
 <3015 (50)
 30–2998 (26.7)
 ≥3007 (23.3)
Hemoglobin, g/dl12.9 (9.3–16.8)
Albumin, g/dl3.6 (2.9–4.1)
Serum potassium, mEq/L4.1 (3.0–5.1)
Serum bicarbonate, mEq/L27.5 (20.0–38.0)
Serum phosphorus, mg/dl3.6 (2.3–5.1)
Serum intact PTH, pg/ml80 (37.8–359.1)
Nephrology care, yr3.3 (0.3–12.9)
  • PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; PTH, parathyroid hormone.

  • a Health literacy screening defined as “somewhat, a little bit, or not at all” when asked “how confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” (15,19,20).

  • b Self-reported confidence in CKD-related self-management tasks. Scores range from 6 to 30 with higher scores indicating lower confidence (16).

  • c Life-space assessment measures of how far, how frequent, and amount of assistance needed when moving through one’s environment in the last 4 weeks. Scores range from 0 (bedbound) to 120 (beyond one’s town without the use of an assistive device or help from another person) (21).

  • d Abbreviated social support measure. Scores range from 5 to 25 with higher scores indicating more support (17,18).