Table 1.

Major dialysis emergencies

Type of EmergencyEstimated Frequency, per Million HD SessionsRefs.
Dialysis disequilibrium
Air embolism8.5–33Tennankore et al. (31), Wong et al. (32)
Hemolysis
Vascular access hemorrhage
Venous needle dislodgement14–91Tennankore et al. (31), Wong et al. (32), VA study (65), Pennsylvania patient safety study (64)
Allergic reaction21–170Villarroel and Ciarkowski (71), Daugirdas et al. (72), Simon et al. (129)
Cardiac arrest70Karnik et al. (2)
Errors in following the HD prescription
  • HD, hemodialysis.