Table 3.

Causes of hemolysis during hemodialysis

Dialysate related
 Contamination with copper, zinc, nitrate, nitrite, and chloramine
 Hypo-osmolar dialysate
 Hyperthermia
Extracorporeal circuit related
 Blood pump malocclusion
 Single–needle high–flow dialysis
 Partial occlusion of HD catheter
 Kinked tubing, faulty blood tubing
Patient related
 Sickle cell anemia
 Hereditary spherocytosis
 Autoimmune hemolysis
  • HD, hemodialysis.