Table 2.

Characteristics of patients with ESRD in the month before death, stratified by presence of surrogate and treatment-limiting directive

CharacteristicNo Surrogate or Treatment-Limiting Directive (n=18,783)Surrogate Alone (n=2581)Treatment-Limiting Directive Alone (n=6438)Surrogate and Treatment-Limiting Directive (n=2914)
Age, yr70±1274±1175±1178±10
Time receiving dialysis, yr3 (1, 6)3 (1, 5)3 (1, 5)3 (1, 5)
Time from nursing home admission, m7 (3, 10)8 (4, 11)8 (4, 11)8 (4, 11)
Hemodialysis (versus peritoneal dialysis), % 98989897
Women, %50515354
Race, %
 White59767689
 Black3721209
 Other4342
Hospital referral region spending, %
 Quintile 16121017
 Quintile 214172120
 Quintile 318211923
 Quintile 421202219
 Quintile 541302921
Diabetes, %86838280
Ischemic heart disease, %82848383
Heart failure, %90909091
Stroke, %45434544
Chronic liver disease, %27222219
Chronic lung disease, %65666767
Cancer, %26282728
Depression, %45505050
Dementia, %32353639
Impaired decision-making skills, %27313637
Activities of Daily Living scorea16±1017±717±717±7
Days hospitalized in prior year43 (23, 74)37 (21, 65)34 (18, 58)29 (15, 50)
  • Continuous variables are presented as mean±SD, or median (interquartile range), as appropriate.

  • a The Activities of Daily Living score ranges from 0 to 28; higher scores indicate more functional limitations.