Table 1.

Patient characteristics by DOPPS region and HCV status at study enrollment (DOPPS phases 1–5, 1996–2015)

CharacteristicOverallNorth AmericaEuropeaJapanOtherb
HCV+HCV−HCV+HCV−HCV+HCV−HCV+HCV−HCV+HCV−
Patients, n576270,927173227,740184625,526148010,4577047204
Demographics
 Age, yr58.5 (13.6)62.8 (15.0)56.1 (13.2)62.3 (15.4)58.9 (14.6)64.3 (15.0)62.3 (11.4)62.5 (12.9)54.8 (13.9)59.2 (15.0)
 Men, %62.258.466.855.057.160.765.362.757.357.1
 Black race, %52.126.9
 Yr on dialysis4.6 [1.1, 12.8]1.6 [0.3, 4.6]2.1 [0.3, 5.5]1.2 [0.2, 3.6]5.9 [1.4, 15.8]1.4 [0.3, 4.3]7.9 [2.2, 18.5]3.5 [0.6, 8.4]6.3 [2.4, 12.7]2.3 [0.7, 4.9]
 Body mass index, kg/m223.3 (5.1)25.6 (6.1)25.5 (5.9)27.5 (6.9)23.6 (4.5)25.5 (5.2)20.3 (3.0)21.1 (3.3)23.3 (5.5)25.1 (6.0)
 Transplant waitlisted, %c11.710.716.311.015.213.06.54.26.910.7
Primary cause of ESRD, %
 GN or vasculitis32.021.514.012.031.320.350.344.337.927.6
 Cystic/hereditary/congenital6.46.42.83.912.49.53.05.46.66.9
 Diabetes25.232.435.042.614.422.329.332.120.329.8
 Obstruction4.03.51.41.88.65.91.21.24.04.7
 Interstitial nephritis3.13.22.71.75.25.31.01.22.84.2
 Hypertension16.120.133.928.99.717.73.35.417.116.8
 Other cause of ESRD12.210.68.86.916.815.411.49.610.48.8
Comorbidities, %
 Hypertension75.382.986.587.675.682.163.273.479.486.4
 Coronary artery disease33.441.544.453.230.338.930.427.727.539.3
 Neurologic disorder10.310.114.011.810.610.37.57.68.58.7
 Other cardiovascular disease31.931.227.232.237.134.234.126.221.925.3
 Peripheral vascular disease20.525.221.729.423.228.018.913.814.720.4
 Diabetes32.040.144.853.323.432.633.935.727.336.9
 Congestive heart failure25.530.236.843.024.826.117.318.923.926.5
 Lung disease8.611.813.316.110.712.63.12.76.110.4
 Cerebrovascular disease13.116.215.818.312.816.012.713.910.014.9
 Recurrent cellulitis6.37.89.810.56.97.83.23.45.06.7
 Cancer9.812.49.312.911.315.011.08.63.97.2
 Gastrointestinal bleed in last yr6.25.48.77.15.15.16.14.34.83.8
 Psychologic disorder18.616.635.224.421.817.03.84.110.511.8
 Substance abuse in last 12 mo5.11.717.93.63.21.20.50.21.00.8
 Cirrhosisd9.91.411.71.610.11.514.41.36.31.0
 Hepatitis B8.41.85.70.910.51.85.61.913.84.3
 HIV/AIDS2.80.67.71.62.00.30.40.51.00.1
Laboratory values
 Hb, g/dl10.8 (1.7)10.9 (1.6)11.1 (1.7)11.0 (1.5)11.2 (1.7)11.1 (1.6)10.0 (1.4)10.1 (1.4)10.9 (2.0)10.9 (1.8)
 Albumin, g/dl3.7 (0.5)3.7 (0.5)3.6 (0.6)3.7 (0.5)3.8 (0.6)3.7 (0.6)3.7 (0.4)3.7 (0.5)3.7 (0.5)3.7 (0.5)
 Ferritin, ng/ml285 [110, 570]330 [141, 625]422 [200, 728]431 [197, 757]309 [151, 553]327 [163, 567]97.2 [39.0, 224.0]95.0 [37.0, 212.0]343 [133, 640]393 [190, 654]
 CRP, mg/le3.3 [1.0 ,9.0]5.0 [1.6, 12.0]5.0 [3.0, 13.0]6.4 [3.0, 15.2]1.0 [0.5, 3.8]1.0 [0.5, 3.3]4.2 [2.0, 8.5]5.3 [2.5, 14.0]
 Phosphorus, mg/dl5.4 (1.8)5.4 (1.7)5.5 (1.8)5.4 (1.8)5.2 (1.8)5.2 (1.8)5.5 (1.6)5.5 (1.5)5.6 (2.3)5.5 (1.9)
 Creatinine, mg/dl9.4 (3.1)8.5 (3.2)9.1 (3.6)8.0 (3.2)8.7 (2.8)8.0 (2.8)10.2 (2.8)10.4 (3.1)9.8 (3.1)9.1 (3.2)
 Platelets, 103 cells/mm3d169 (86)199 (87)195 (80)214 (76)195 (75)220 (78)97.6 (81.6)119 (101)173 (76)198 (74)
 Bilirubin, mg/dlf0.6 (2.0)0.5 (1.6)0.5 (0.2)0.5 (1.1)0.5 (1.0)0.6 (2.2)0.3 (0.1)0.4 (0.6)0.9 (3.0)0.5 (0.4)
 ALT, U/Lf22.6 (31.6)16.4 (22.6)21.4 (12.4)16.7 (21.0)23.8 (19.4)18.4 (30.0)18.7 (59.2)11.5 (10.2)24.8 (17.0)16.7 (13.1)
 AST, U/Lf21.8 (16.0)17.3 (16.4)23.8 (12.5)18.4 (13.1)21.1 (11.7)18.3 (20.8)19.3 (23.2)14.7 (13.7)23.2 (13.5)16.3 (12.1)
Medications
 ESA prescription in last mo, %82.484.083.382.981.984.380.883.684.787.5
 Epoetin equivalent dose, U/wkg7500 [4232, 12,695]8279 [4600, 13,800]12,000 [6000, 24,000]11,500 [6000, 22,800]7359 [4232, 12,500]7500 [4600, 12,500]5000 [2760, 8279]4761 [2760, 8279]9000 [5750, 11,500]9199 [5980, 12,000]
 ESA dose:Hb ratio, (U/wk)/ (g/dl)708 [387, 1233]750 [411, 1304]1043 [513, 2195]1020 [500, 2026]667 [367, 1165]692 [403, 1163]476 [285, 812]463 [276, 806]833 [505, 1237]841 [505, 1223]
 IV iron prescription in last 4 mo, %45.353.748.851.859.065.724.125.844.658.0
 IV iron dose, mg/mog250 [160, 435]250 [174, 435]250 [200, 500]272 [213, 625]250 [150, 435]250 [160, 435]174 [160, 348]174 [160, 348]435 [217, 489]254 [157, 435]
  • Results shown as prevalence, mean (SD), or median [interquartile range]. DOPPS, Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HCV+, hepatitis C virus-positive; HCV−, hepatitis C virus-negative; —, not measured; Hb, hemoglobin; CRP, C-reactive protein; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ESA, erythropoiesis stimulating agent; IV, intravenous.

  • a Includes Belgium, Italy, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom.

  • b Includes Australia (2002–2015), China (2010–2015), Gulf Cooperation Council countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates, 2012–2015), New Zealand (2002–2015), Russia (2012–2015), and Turkey (2012–2015).

  • c DOPPS phase 1 (1996–2001) only collected in the United States; also collected in all other countries in subsequent phases.

  • d DOPPS phases 4 and 5 only (2009–2015), n=30,030 patients.

  • e Restricted to facilities measuring CRP routinely (quarterly) for at least 75% of patients (excludes all North American facilities); not collected in DOPPS phase 1 (1996–2001).

  • f DOPPS phase 5, year 2+ only (2013–2015); first nonmissing value during DOPPS phase 5 follow-up; n=6083, 7968, and 9214 for bilirubin, AST, and ALT respectively.

  • g Among patients prescribed (excludes zero doses); darbepoetin doses converted at 250:1, PEGylated epoetin β (Mircera) doses converted at 208:1, subcutaneous doses converted at 1.15:1.