Table 3.

Stratified analysis of serum potassium categories with all-cause mortality, CVD death, and non-CVD death by diuretics

OutcomesPotassium Concentration, mEq/L
<3.53.5–3.94.0–4.44.5–4.9≥5.0
All-cause mortality
 No diuretics
  Events/P-Y41/986389/11,2711438/53,496639/23,48678/2543
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)41.5834.5126.8827.2130.67
  Age, sex, race1.44 (1.06 to 1.97)1.35 (1.21 to 1.51)1 (ref)1.09 (0.99 to 1.20)1.37 (1.09 to 1.72)
  Fully adjusteda1.27 (0.92 to 1.77)1.31 (1.17 to 1.47)1 (ref)1.07 (0.97 to 1.18)1.37 (1.08 to 1.75)
 Diuretics
  Events/P-Y157/3095332/7489334/7591100/220613/215
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)50.7344.3344.0045.3360.47
  Age, sex, race0.99 (0.82 to 1.20)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)1 (ref)1.03 (0.82 to 1.29)1.74 (0.99 to 3.05)
  Fully adjusteda1.01 (0.83 to 1.23)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)1 (ref)1.07 (0.85 to 1.35)2.15 (1.17 to 3.95)
 P for interaction=0.02
CVD death
 No diuretics
  Events/P-Y10/1304119/14,346426/64,313174/28,24921/3040
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)7.678.296.626.166.91
  Age, sex, race1.17 (0.62 to 2.19)0.88 (0.72 to 1.08)1 (ref)1.23 (1.03 to 1.48)1.27 (0.82 to 1.98)
  Fully adjusteda1.03 (0.54 to 1.95)0.90 (0.73 to 1.11)1 (ref)1.15 (0.96 to 1.38)0.98 (0.61 to 1.58)
 Diuretics
  Events/P-Y54/4532114/10,199121/10,65238/29967/268
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)11.9211.1811.3612.6826.12
  Age, sex, race0.80 (0.58 to 1.10)1.05 (0.81 to 1.34)1 (ref)1.71 (1.18 to 2.48)9.25 (4.21 to 20.34)
  Fully adjusteda0.87 (0.62 to 1.22)1.02 (0.78 to 1.33)1 (ref)1.63 (1.11 to 2.38)4.24 (1.66 to 10.86)
P for interaction=0.01
Non-CVD death
 No diuretics
  Events/P-Y31/1304270/14,3461012/64,313465/28,24957/3040
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)23.7718.8215.7416.4618.75
  Age, sex, race1.44 (1.01 to 2.06)0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)1 (ref)1.43 (1.28 to 1.60)1.47 (1.12 to 1.94)
  Fully adjusteda1.19 (0.81 to 1.75)0.92 (0.80 to 1.06)1 (ref)1.24 (1.11 to 1.39)1.06 (0.79 to 1.43)
 Diuretics
  Events/P-Y103/4532218/10,199213/10,65262/29966/268
  Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)22.7321.3719.2020.6922.39
  Age, sex, race0.83 (0.65 to 1.05)1.11 (0.91 to 1.34)1 (ref)1.60 (1.20 to 2.14)3.30 (1.45 to 7.53)
  Fully adjusteda0.90 (0.70 to 1.15)1.01 (0.83 to 1.23)1 (ref)1.23 (0.92 to 1.66)1.28 (0.55 to 3.01)
 P for interaction=0.002
  • Data are displayed as Hazard Ratio (95% confidence intervals) for age, sex, race, and fully adjusted models. CVD, cardiovascular disease; P-Y, person years; ref, reference.

  • a Diuretics: fully adjusted for age, sex, race, time-varying eGFR, diabetes mellitus, systolic BP, current smoking, pack-years smoking, ever having cancer, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, any angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, potassium supplements, β blockers, β agonists, and other antihypertensive medications.