Table 2.

Associations between categories of serum potassium and all-cause mortality, CVD death, non-CVD death, and CVD events in MESA and CHS (pooled, n=9651)

OutcomesPotassium Concentration, mEq/L
<3.53.5–3.94.0–4.44.5–4.9≥5.0
All-cause mortality
 Events/P-Y199/4086723/18,8351777/61,187739/25,69191/ 2758
 Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)48.7038.3929.0428.7632.99
 Age, sex, race1.33 (1.15 to 1.54)1.28 (1.17 to 1.40)1 (ref)1.07 (0.98 to 1.16)1.37 (1.11 to 1.69)
 Fully adjusteda1.13 (0.96 to 1.33)1.18 (1.08 to 1.30)1 (ref)1.06 (0.97 to 1.16)1.41 (1.12 to 1.76)
CVD deathb
 Events/P-Y65/5858233/24,635549/75,102212/31,24528/3308
 Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)11.109.467.316.798.46
 Age, sex, race0.96 (0.74 to 1.24)0.99 (0.85 to 1.16)1 (ref)1.26 (1.08 to 1.48)1.60 (1.09 to 2.34)
 Fully adjusteda0.84 (0.63 to 1.12)0.98 (0.79 to 1.09)1 (ref)1.21 (1.02 to 1.42)1.50 (1.00 to 2.26)
Non-CVD deathb
 Events/P-Y134/5858490/24,6351228/75,102527/31,24563/3308
 Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)22.8719.8916.3516.8719.04
 Age, sex, race0.89 (0.74 to 1.06)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)1 (ref)1.45 (1.31 to 1.61)1.56 (1.21 to 2.02)
 Fully adjusteda0.99 (0.81 to 1.21)1.02 (0.85 to 1.06)1 (ref)1.22 (1.10 to 1.36)1.40 (1.07 to 1.83)
CVD events
 Events/P-Y137/3300472/16,5901224/53,951484/23,08459/2417
 Event rate (per 1000 P-Y)41.5228.4522.6920.9723.17
 Age, sex, race1.58 (1.33 to 1.89)1.24 (1.11 to 1.38)1 (ref)0.95 (0.85 to 1.05)1.14 (0.88 to 1.49)
 Fully adjusteda1.13 (0.93 to 1.37)1.08 (0.96 to 1.20)1 (ref)1.02 (0.91 to 1.13)1.20 (0.90 to 1.56)
  • Data are displayed as Hazard Ratio (95% confidence intervals) for age, sex, race, and fully adjusted models. CVD, cardiovascular disease; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; P-Y, person-years; ref, reference.

  • a Adjusted for age, sex, race, study cohort, time-varying eGFR, diabetes mellitus, systolic BP, current smoking, pack-years smoking, ever having cancer, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, potassium-sparing diuretics, other diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, potassium supplements, other antihypertensive medications, β blockers, and β agonists.

  • b Analyses and events per P-Y accounted for participants up to December of 2011.