Table 1.

Characteristics of included studies

First AuthorDietary PatternCountryStudy NameNo. of ParticipantsYr of Follow-Up (Person-yr)Definition of Kidney DiseaseAge at Entry, (Mean or Median)eGFR, Mean±SD, ml/min per 1.73 m2End Points (No. of Events)
Chen et al. 2016 (26)Plant versus animal proteinUnited StatesThird National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)1065 men and women6.2 (6603)eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m220 yr or older (not reported)101±20 (quartile 1)All-cause mortality (633)
Gutiérrez et al. 2014 (27)Plant basedUnited StatesReasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study3972 men and women6.4 (25,421)eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g45 yr or older (67.1–69.8 yr)68.1 (SEM 0.8) (quartile 1)All-cause mortality (816); ESRD (141)
Huang et al. 2013 (28)Mediterranean dietSwedenUppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men506 men9.9 (4648)eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2Approximately 70 yr51.9 (median) (interquartile range, 46.3–56.6)All- cause mortality (168)
Muntner et al. 2013 (29)Diet score (fish, fruit/vegetables, sodium, sugar fiber, and carbohydrate)United StatesReasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study3093 men and women4 (12,372)eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m245 yr or older (72.2 yr)All-cause mortality (610); ESRD (160)
Ricardo et al. 2015 (17)American Heart AssociationUnited StatesChronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study3006 men and women4 (12,024)eGFR of 20–70 ml/min per 1.73 m221–74 yr (58 yr)43.39±13.34 (diet score 0)All-cause mortality (437); CKD progression (50% decrease in eGFR or ESRD) (726); atherosclerotic events (355)
Ricardo et al. 2013 (30)Healthy Eating Index based on Food Guide PyramidUnited StatesThird National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)2288 men and women13 (29,744)eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g20 yr or older (59 yr)88.4±1.7 (SEM) (healthy lifestyle score quartile 1)All-cause mortality (1319)
Tsuruya et al. 2015 (31)Meat, fish, and vegetable intakeJapanJapan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (JDOPPS)1355 men and womenNot reportedHemodialysisNot reported (61.4 yr)DialysisAll-cause mortality or hospitalization because of cardiovascular disease (not reported)