Table 2.

Cox proportional hazard models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by mean corpuscular volume category

All-Cause MortalityCVD MortalityInfection Mortality
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)P ValueHazard Ratio (95% CI)P ValueHazard Ratio (95% CI)P Value
Unadjusted model1.94 (1.46 to 2.57)<0.0012.78 (1.45 to 5.31)0.0021.94 (1.28 to 2.94)0.002
Model 11.70 (1.28 to 2.26)<0.0012.29 (1.20 to 4.39)0.011.66 (1.09 to 2.53)0.01
Model 21.69 (1.27 to 2.25)<0.0012.29 (1.20 to 4.39)0.011.67 (1.11 to 2.55)0.01
Model 32.13 (1.59 to 2.86)<0.0013.64 (1.83 to 7.23)<0.0012.02 (1.31 to 3.11)0.002
Model 42.12 (1.58 to 2.85)<0.0013.67 (1.84 to 7.33)<0.0012.02 (1.31 to 3.11)0.002
Model 52.19 (1.62 to 2.96)<0.0013.57 (1.80 to 7.06)<0.0012.22 (1.41 to 3.49)0.001
  • The referent group for all models is mean corpuscular volume below the median of 90.8. The variables for adjustments in models 1–5 are described. Model 1: mean corpuscular volume, age categories, sex, body mass index, educational level, marital status, and causes of CKD. Model 2: model 1 plus alcohol and smoking. Model 3: model 2 plus albumin, BUN, eGFR, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, red cell distribution width, calcium, phosphate, cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and proteinuria. Model 4: model 3 plus angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, vitamin B12, iron preparation, folic acid, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, fibrate, and statin. Model 5: model 4 plus cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver cirrhosis, peripheral arterial disease, and autoimmune disease. CVD, cardiovascular disease; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.