Table 2.

Potential strategies to prevent dialysis disequilibrium syndrome in high-risk patients

(1) Limit the first HD session to 2–2.5 h
(2) Limit the blood flow to 200–250 ml/min
(3) Sodium modeling or a high-sodium dialysate
(4) Consider intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg)
(5) Consider CRRT in patients at high risk for DDS (traumatic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial mass)
  • HD, hemodialysis; CRRT, continuous RRT; DDS, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome.