Table 3.

Odds ratios for incident albuminuria analyzed with multiple logistic regression

Independent VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3
OR95% CIP ValueOR95% CIP ValueOR95% CIP Value
Increasing GFR,a yes/no3.551.21 to 10.350.024.221.41 to 12.67<0.014.981.49 to 16.130.001
ΔGFR, per SD1.791.21 to 2.670.0041.941.23 to 2.790.0032.131.38 to 3.320.001
Age, per yr0.960.85 to 1.120.550.980.84 to 1.130.740.970.83 to 1.130.68
Men0.870.28 to 2.570.810.510.15 to 1.790.290.410.10 to 1.610.20
Baseline ambulatory diastolic BP, per SD1.280.72 to 2.270.381.100.57 to 1.950.85
Baseline BMI, per SD1.270.75 to 2.160.911.470.80 to 2.700.20
Baseline fasting glucose, per SD2.051.17 to 3.600.012.521.31 to 4.84<0.01
Smoking at baseline, yes/no2.810.81 to 9.720.102.490.52 to 11.890.25
Baseline regular alcohol use, yes/no1.500.47 to 4.740.501.110.30 to 4.080.90
Baseline triglycerides, per SD1.000.60 to 1.70>0.99
Baseline LDL cholesterol, per SD0.940.50 to 1.700.80
Baseline HDL cholesterol, per SD0.940.36 to 1.900.90
  • Incident albuminuria defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: independent variables adjusted for each other and the use of angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker at baseline. Model 3: the same as model 2 and adjusted for baseline triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, physical exercise, fasting insulin, and changes in diastolic BP, fasting glucose, body weight, smoking status, and use of antihypertensive medication from baseline to follow-up. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; ΔGFR, measured GFR at follow-up − measured GFR at baseline (milliliters per minute); BMI, body mass index.

  • a Increased GFR from baseline to follow-up (ΔGFR>0 ml/min). Adjusted for the variables below but separately from ΔGFR per SD.