Table 2.

Association of change in albumin-to-creatinine ratio with change in GFR or increased GFR in separate linear regression analyses

Independent VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3
ΔeGFR, %a95% CIP ValueΔeGFR, %a95% CIP ValueΔeGFR, %a95% CIP Value
ΔGFR, per SD higher6.80.5 to 12.80.036.90.5 to 13.60.038.01.4 to 15.00.02
Increased GFRb, yes/no14.2−0.2 to 30.60.0514.60.1 to 31.30.0516.31.1 to 33.70.03
  • Change in albumin-to-creatinine ratio: log albumin-to-creatinine ratio at follow-up − log albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline. Change in GFR (ΔGFR): measured GFR at follow-up − measured GFR at baseline (milliliters per minute). Model 1: adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: the same as model 1 and adjusted for baseline ambulatory daytime diastolic BP, body mass index, fasting glucose, current smoking, regular alcohol consumption, and use of angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Model 3: the same as model 2 and adjusted for baseline triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, physical exercise, fasting insulin, and changes in diastolic BP, fasting glucose, body weight, smoking habits, and antihypertensive medication from baseline to follow-up. ΔeGFR, change in eGFR; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Represents the percentage change in albumin-to-creatinine ratiofollow-up-to-albumin-to-creatinine ratiobaseline ratio.

  • b Increased GFR defined as ΔGFR>0 ml/min.