Table 1.

Patient demographic and clinical characteristics by high-use status (n=57,007)

Patient CharacteristicsHigh User StatusP Value
OverallPersistentEpisodicNonhigh Use
No. of patients, %57,007 (100)947 (1.7)7010 (12.3)49,050 (86.0)
Age, yr, mean (SD)76.31 (11.63)72.75 (13.46)75.96 (11.54)76.44 (11.59)<0.001
Age category, yr
 18–44863 (1.5)40 (4.2)113 (1.6)710 (1.4)<0.001
 45–648193 (14.4)192 (20.3)1047 (14.9)6954 (14.2)<0.001
 65–7413,141 (23.1)239 (25.2)1597 (22.8)11,305 (23.0)<0.001
 75+34,810 (61.1)476 (50.3)4253 (60.7)30,081 (61.3)<0.001
Men24,565 (43.1)470 (49.6)3283 (46.8)20,812 (42.4)<0.001
Population type
 First Nations status955 (1.7)68 (7.2)214 (3.1)673 (1.4)<0.001
 Health care subsidy1374 (2.4)20 (2.1)185 (2.6)1169 (2.4)<0.001
 Income support1457 (2.6)54 (5.7)254 (3.6)1149 (2.3)<0.001
 Pensioner47,381 (83.1)689 (72.8)5716 (81.5)40,976 (83.5)<0.001
 General population5840 (10.2)116 (12.2)641 (9.1)5083 (10.4)<0.001
Location of residence
 Urban40,558 (71.1)525 (55.4)4381 (62.5)35,653 (72.7)<0.001
 Rural16,447 (28.9)442 (44.6)2627 (37.5)13,398 (27.3)<0.001
Median neighborhood household income quintile
 1, Lowest16,140 (28.3)311 (32.8)2165 (30.9)13,664 (27.9)<0.001
 213,476 (23.6)231 (24.4)1687 (24.1)11,558 (23.6)<0.001
 310,677 (18.7)173 (18.3)1242 (17.7)9262 (18.9)<0.001
 47584 (13.3)104 (11.0)888 (12.7)6592 (13.4)<0.001
 5, Highest7388 (13.0)87 (9.2)799 (11.4)6502 (13.3)<0.001
 Unknown1742 (3.1)41 (4.3)229 (3.3)1472 (3.0)<0.001
CKD stage
 3A, 59–45 ml/min per 1.73 m236,062 (63.3)526 (55.5)4050 (57.8)31,486 (64.2)<0.001
 3B, 44–30 ml/min per 1.73 m215,371 (27.0)290 (30.6)2077 (29.6)13,004 (26.5)<0.001
 4, 29–15 ml/min per 1.73 m25574 (9.8)131 (13.8)883 (12.6)4560 (9.3)<0.001
General practitioner attachment, n=55,944
 <50%11,146 (19.9)306 (32.8)1695 (24.5)9145 (19.0)<0.001
 50%–74%17,596 (31.5)328 (35.1)2341 (33.9)14,927 (31.0)<0.001
 75%–100%27,202 (48.6)300 (32.1)2875 (41.6)24,027 (50.0)<0.001
At least one visit with nephrologist in prior 2 years, %7924 (13.9)235 (24.8)1321 (18.8)6368 (13.0)<0.001
Comorbidities of interest
 Alcoholism2396 (4.2)123 (13.0)428 (6.1)1845 (3.8)<0.001
 Asthma3735 (6.6)136 (14.4)639 (9.1)2960 (6.0)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation12,280 (21.5)316 (33.4)2000 (28.5)9964 (20.3)<0.001
 Cancer, lymphoma824 (1.4)16 (1.7)166 (2.4)642 (1.3)<0.001
 Cancer, metastatic1748 (3.1)38 (4.0)287 (4.1)1423 (2.9)<0.001
 Cancer, nonmetastatic5543 (9.7)105 (11.1)833 (11.9)4605 (9.4)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure15,956 (28.0)469 (49.5)2760 (39.4)12,727 (25.9)<0.001
 Chronic pain8210 (14.4)226 (23.9)1212 (17.3)6772 (13.8)<0.001
 COPD19,363 (34.0)537 (56.7)3122 (44.5)15,704 (32.0)<0.001
 Cirrhosis607 (1.1)55 (5.8)142 (2.0)410 (0.8)<0.001
 Dementia5871 (10.3)83 (8.8)604 (8.6)5184 (10.6)<0.001
 Depression7062 (12.4)222 (23.4)1026 (14.6)5814 (11.9)<0.001
 Diabetes19,371 (34.0)473 (49.9)2817 (40.2)16,081 (32.8)<0.001
 Epilepsy1270 (2.2)46 (4.9)216 (3.1)1008 (2.1)<0.001
 Hypertension48,501 (85.1)836 (88.3)6128 (87.4)41,537 (84.7)<0.001
 Hypothyroidism12,689 (22.3)251 (26.5)1612 (23.0)10,826 (22.1)0.001
 Inflammatory bowel disease1087 (1.9)40 (4.2)172 (2.5)875 (1.8)<0.001
 Irritable bowel syndrome2202 (3.9)73 (7.7)315 (4.5)1814 (3.7)<0.001
 Multiple sclerosis394 (0.7)11 (1.2)54 (0.8)329 (0.7)0.14
 Myocardial infarction6862 (12.0)175 (18.5)1077 (15.4)5610 (11.4)<0.001
 Parkinson disease760 (1.3)26 (2.7)115 (1.6)619 (1.3)<0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease436 (0.8)24 (2.5)78 (1.1)334 (0.7)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease3473 (6.1)88 (9.3)585 (8.3)2800 (5.7)<0.001
 Psoriasis805 (1.4)26 (2.7)127 (1.8)652 (1.3)<0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis4060 (7.1)106 (11.2)579 (8.3)3375 (6.9)<0.001
 Schizophrenia936 (1.6)24 (2.5)131 (1.9)781 (1.6)0.02
 Stroke13,412 (23.5)298 (31.5)1913 (27.3)11,201 (22.8)<0.001
No. of comorbidities, mean (SD)3.78 (2.20)5.56 (2.45)4.50 (2.30)3.63 (2.15)<0.001
One or more concordant conditionsa51,592 (90.5)895 (94.5)6501 (92.7)44,196 (90.1)<0.001
One or more discordant conditionsb36,316 (63.7)789 (83.3)5064 (72.2)30,463 (62.1)<0.001
One or more mental health conditionsc15,575 (27.3)441 (46.6)2228 (31.8)12,906 (26.3)<0.001
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • a Conditions included within the concordant category: myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke.

  • b Conditions included within the discordant category: asthma, cancer (nonmetastatic, metastatic, and lymphoma), COPD, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, dementia, peptic ulcer disease, psoriasis, and epilepsy.

  • c Conditions included within the mental health category: alcoholism, chronic pain, depression, and schizophrenia.