Table 3.

Cox models (end point decompensated heart failure/all-cause mortality)

Exposure VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Continuous predictors
 Log NT-proBNP, pg/ml6.63 (4.85 to 9.07)<0.0015.25 (3.74 to 7.38)<0.0014.36 (2.94 to 6.46)<0.0013.61 (2.35 to 5.54)<0.001
 LVMI, g/m21.01 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.0011.01 (1.00 to 1.02)<0.0011.01 (1.00 to 1.01)<0.011.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.57
 LAVI, ml/m21.05 (1.04 to 1.07)<0.0011.04 (1.03 to 1.06)<0.0011.03 (1.01 to 1.04)<0.0011.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.73
 E/e′1.15 (1.10 to 1.20)<0.0011.13 (1.07 to 1.19)<0.0011.07 (1.01 to 1.13)0.020.99 (0.94 to 1.05)0.82
Categorized predictors
 NT-proBNP<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  Second tertilea3.49 (1.30 to 9.34)0.012.49 (0.91 to 6.76)0.072.15 (0.79 to 5.88)0.132.09 (0.77 to 5.69)0.15
  Third tertilea19.11 (7.74 to 47.18)<0.00111.34 (4.47 to 28.76)<0.0018.20 (3.11 to 21.60)<0.0017.07 (2.66 to 18.81)<0.001
 LVMI0.0010.060.110.98
  Second tertilea1.58 (0.89 to 2.82)0.121.20 (0.66 to 2.17)0.541.22 (0.67 to 2.20)0.521.05 (0.58 to 1.90)0.88
  Third tertilea2.90 (1.71 to 4.92)<0.0011.82 (1.04 to 3.17)0.031.74 (0.99 to 3.07)0.051.06 (0.59 to 1.90)0.85
 LAVI<0.001<0.0010.0010.12
  Second tertilea1.64 (0.86 to 3.15)0.141.13 (0.58 to 2.20)0.721.25 (0.64 to 2.43)0.511.04 (0.52 to 2.06)0.92
  Third tertilea4.61 (2.59 to 8.20)<0.0012.77 (1.52 to 5.02)<0.0012.60 (1.42 to 4.73)0.0021.66 (0.88 to 3.13)0.12
 E/e′<0.001<0.0010.010.08
  Second tertilea1.02 (0.53 to 1.97)0.950.82 (0.43 to 1.59)0.560.73 (0.37 to 1.44)0.370.66 (0.34 to 1.31)0.24
  Third tertilea3.60 (2.08 to 6.22)<0.0012.28 (1.28 to 4.04)<0.011.64 (0.91 to 2.98)0.101.26 (0.69 to 2.32)0.45
 Systolic LV function
  Impaired (versus normal)4.62 (3.05 to 6.98)<0.0013.51 (2.30 to 5.34)<0.0013.31 (2.12 to 5.17)<0.0012.52 (1.61 to 3.94)<0.001
  • Model 1 is the univariable analysis. Model 2 is adjusted for age and sex. Model 3 is adjusted for age, sex, eGFR, diabetes mellitus, prevalent cardiovascular disease, smoking, diastolic BP, and cholesterol. Model 4 includes variables from model 3 and NT-proBNP (for all analyses with echocardiographic parameters as exposure variable) or systolic LV function (analyses with NT-proBNP as exposure variable). HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; NT-proBNP, amino–terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; LAVI, left atrial volume index; E/e′, diastolic left ventricular function.

  • a Reference is the first tertile.