Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants

VariableTotal Cohort, n=496No HF/ACM, n=392HF/ACM, n=104P ValueNo AE/ACM, n=369AE/ACM, n=127P Value
Age, yr65.0±12.463.0±12.572.5±8.8<0.00163.2±12.770.4±9.8<0.001
Sex, women205 (41%)171 (44%)34 (33%)0.04167 (45%)38 (30%)0.002
Prevalent CVD160 (32%)106 (27%)54 (52%)<0.00186 (23%)74 (58%)<0.001
BMI, kg/m230.4±5.530.4±5.530.3±5.50.8330.6±5.629.7±5.20.13
Diabetes mellitus188 (38%)133 (34%)55 (53%)<0.001122 (33%)66 (52%)<0.001
Current nicotine54 (11%)48 (12%)6 (6%)0.0841 (11%)13 (10%)0.87
Cholesterol, mg/dl192±43194±43183±420.01196±43180±41<0.001
NT-proBNP, pg/ml211 (90–602)152 (72–325)964 (399–2353)<0.001146 (72–321)690 (298–2157)<0.001
CRP, mg/L2.7 (1.2–5.0)2.5 (1.1–4.6)3.8 (1.6–7.9)0.0022.4 (1.1–4.5)3.8 (1.6–8.4)<0.001
Phosphorus, mg/dl3.37±0.683.28±0.613.71±0.82<0.0013.32±0.623.52±0.820.003
Parathyroid hormone, pg/ml52 (37–82)47 (35–68)82 (53–126)<0.00148 (35–69)70 (42–112)<0.001
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m246±1649±1535±12<0.00149±1638±14<0.001
CKD stage<0.001<0.001
 G2103 (21%)98 (25%)5 (5%)95 (26%)8 (6%)
 G3a169 (34%)154 (39%)15 (14%)139 (38%)30 (24%)
 G3b137 (28%)91 (23%)46 (44%)86 (23%)51 (40%)
 G487 (18%)49 (12%)38 (37%)49 (13%)38 (30%)
Albuminuria, mg/g creatinine32 (7–201)24 (6–171)87 (25–266)<0.00122 (6–147)80 (24–306)<0.001
Systolic BP, mmHg152±24152±23155±260.20152±23155±260.16
Diastolic BP, mmHg86±1387±1381±12<0.00186±1383±13<0.01
ACE inhibitors171 (34%)132 (34%)39 (38%)0.49115 (31%)56 (44%)<0.01
Angiotensin receptor blockers251 (51%)207 (53%)44 (42%)0.06203 (55%)48 (38%)<0.001
Aldosterone receptor blocker111 (22%)85 (22%)26 (25%)0.5183 (23%)28 (22%)>0.99
β-Blockers341 (69%)255 (65%)86 (83%)<0.001241 (65%)100 (79%)<0.01
Loop diuretics216 (43%)138 (35%)78 (75%)<0.001136 (37%)80 (63%)<0.001
Thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics254 (51%)202 (52%)52 (50%)0.83192 (52%)62 (49%)0.54
Statins254 (51%)196 (50%)58 (56%)0.32179 (49%)75 (59%)0.05
LVMI, g/m292.8±28.089.3±25.4106.7±32.7<0.00188.8±25.4105.1±31.8<0.001
E/e′8.9±3.38.4±3.010.8±3.8<0.0018.3±3.010.6±3.7<0.001
LAVI, ml/m237.9±12.935.8±11.546.0±14.7<0.00135.8±11.444.2±15.0<0.001
Impaired systolic LV function65 (13%)31 (8%)34 (33%)<0.00133 (9%)32 (25%)<0.001
  • Data are presented as means±SD or medians (interquartile ranges) for continuous variables and numbers of patients (percentages) for categorical variables. P values correspond to the comparison of patients characteristics according to the end point. AE/ACM, end point atherosclerotic events/all-cause mortality; HF/ACM, end point decompensated heart failure/all-cause mortality; CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; NT-proBNP, amino–terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; CRP, C-reactive protein; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; E/e′, diastolic left ventricular function; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LV, left ventricular.