Table 2.

Hospital encounter characteristics and outcomes by high-use status (n=57,007)

VariableAll, n=57,007Persistent High Use, n=947Episodic High Use, n=7010Nonhigh Use, n=49,050P Value
Total no. of hospital encounters (%)118,6718913 (7.5)31,796 (26.8)77,962 (65.7)
No. of hospital admissions per patient, median (IQR) [range]1 (1–3) [1–29]9 (7–11) [6–29]4 (3–5) [3–23]1 (1–2) [1–6]<0.001
Average length of stay, median (IQR)11.1 (6–23)11.0 (7.7–16.7)12.4 (8–20)10.75 (5.5–24.8)<0.001
Cumulative length of stay, median (IQR) [range]17 (6–53) [1–7050]118 (71–197) [15–2903]60 (32–116) [3–3102]13 (5–39) [1–7050]<0.001
Total no. of hospital days (%)2,074,316120,427 (5.8)506,724 (24.4)1,447,165 (69.8)<0.001
Discharge disposition (last admission)
 Transfer to acute care0.82.21.20.8<0.001
 Transfer to long-term care11.613.213.911.2<0.001
 Transfer to other facility1.01.01.41.0<0.001
 Home with support services16.618.016.916.6<0.001
 Home49.935.535.452.2<0.001
 Signed out against medical advice0.40.80.50.4<0.001
 In-hospital mortality19.629.430.817.9<0.001
Overall mortality within study follow-up period (%)35.751.952.433<0.001
Mortality rate, deaths per 1000 patient-yr (95% CI)139.6 (137.7 to 141.5)190.7 (174.5 to 208.3)217.0 (210.1 to 224.1)128.1 (126.2 to 130.1)<0.001
Proportion of patients with one or more all–cause 30-day readmissionsa12,128 (21.3)895 (94.5)5654 (80.7)5579 (11.4)<0.001
No. of all–cause 30-day readmissionsa
 044,879 (78.7)52 (5.5)1356 (19.3)43,471 (88.6)<0.001
 18253 (14.5)121 (12.8)2788 (39.8)5344 (10.9)<0.001
 ≥23875 (6.8)774 (81.8)2866 (40.9)235 (0.5)<0.001
  • IQR, interquartile range; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Among patients eligible for hospital readmission (excludes patients who died in hospital before discharge).