Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics according to HDL cholesterol levels

CharacteristicOverallHDL-C≤25 mg/dlHDL-C>25 to <34 mg/dlHDL-C≥34 to ≤42 mg/dlHDL-C>42 to <50 mg/dlHDL-C≥50 mg/dl
No. (%)1,764,98665,431 (3.7)338,327 (19.2)522,373 (29.6)399,303 (22.6)439,552 (24.9)
Median HDL-C (IQR), mg/dl41.0 (34.0–49.5)23.0 (21.6–25.0)30.0 (28.1–32.0)37.9 (36.0–39.5)45.0 (43.0–47.0)57.0 (53.0–65.0)
Race (%)
 White1,503,312 (85.2)58,598 (89.6)299,469 (88.5)452,934 (86.7)338,073 (84.7)354,238 (80.6)
 Black224,785 (12.7)5626 (8.6)31,649 (9.4)58,008 (11.1)52,670 (13.2)76,832 (17.5)
 Other36,889 (2.1)1207 (1.8)7209 (2.1)11,431 (2.2)8560 (2.1)8482 (1.9)
Median age (IQR), yr64.1 (56.1–72.6)61.8 (55.1–71.4)63.1 (55.7–72.0)64.0 (56.1–72.4)64.8 (56.3–72.9)65.0 (56.3–73.1)
Cancer (%)248,058 (14.1)9567 (14.6)45,499 (13.5)71,324 (13.7)55,676 (13.9)65,992 (15.0)
Cerebrovascular accident (%)11,633 (0.7)613 (0.9)2704 (0.8)3643 (0.7)2412 (0.6)2261 (0.5)
Coronary artery disease (%)576,589 (32.7)28,484 (43.5)132,693 (39.2)181,056 (34.7)122,458 (30.7)111,898 (25.5)
Congestive heart failure (%)146,203 (8.3)10,055 (15.4)37,141 (11.0)44,195 (8.5)28,235 (7.1)26,577 (6.1)
Chronic lung disease (%)384,971 (21.8)15,966 (24.4)73,546 (21.7)107,299 (20.5)82,971 (20.8)105,189 (23.9)
Diabetes mellitus (%)557,235 (31.6)31,039 (47.4)138,205 (40.9)179,777 (34.4)113,751 (28.5)94,463 (21.5)
Dementia (%)61,308 (3.5)2438 (3.7)11,563 (3.4)17,766 (3.4)13,831 (3.5)15,710 (3.6)
HIV (%)119,926 (6.8)6277 (9.6)26,114 (7.7)35,227 (6.7)25,030 (6.3)27,278 (6.2)
Hypertension (%)1,278,661 (72.5)50,986 (77.9)258,782 (76.5)385,445 (73.8)283,880 (71.1)299,568 (68.2)
Hepatitis C (%)81,256 (4.6)5312 (8.1)16,527 (4.9)21,527 (4.1)16,189 (4.1)21,701 (4.9)
Peripheral artery disease (%)60,387 (3.4)3302 (5.1)14,210 (4.2)18,337 (3.5)12,246 (3.1)12,292 (2.8)
Average eGFR at T0 (SD), ml/min per 1.73 m274.8 (19.3)71.7 (21.6)72.6 (20.0)73.9 (19.2)75.2 (18.7)77.7 (18.6)
eGFR at T0 (%), ml/min per 1.73 m2
 ≥9025,249 (1.4)2085 (3.2)7150 (2.1)7640 (1.5)4462 (1.1)3912 (0.9)
 ≥60 to <9098,720 (5.6)5972 (9.1)25,157 (7.4)31,263 (6.0)19,746 (5.0)16,582 (3.8)
 ≥45 to <60272,441 (15.4)11,479 (17.5)57,977 (17.1)85,344 (16.3)60,612 (15.2)57,029 (13.0)
 ≥30 to <45954,680 (54.1)31,176 (47.7)176,095 (52.1)283,942 (54.4)222,440 (55.7)241,027 (54.8)
 ≥15 to <30413,896 (23.5)14,719 (22.5)71,948 (21.3)114,184 (21.9)92,043 (23.1)121,002 (27.5)
Dialysis during follow-up (%)27,157 (1.5)1727 (2.6)6961 (2.1)8144 (1.6)5152 (1.3)5173 (1.2)
Kidney transplant during follow-up (%)11,515 (0.7)761 (1.2)2897 (0.9)3357 (0.6)2175 (0.5)2325 (0.5)
Average LDL-C (SD), mg/dl109.79 (33.8)93.16 (33.9)104.40 (33.3)110.88 (33.6)113.73 (33.6)111.54 (33.5)
Average triglycerides (SD), mg/dl160.81 (114.3)252.55 (194.2)204.98 (132.5)171.69 (108.0)145.35 (94.2)114.25 (78.3)
Average serum albumin (SD), g/dl4.09 (0.7)3.88 (0.7)4.00 (0.6)4.08 (0.7)4.13 (0.7)4.16 (0.8)
Body mass index (%)
 Underweight17,671 (1.0)378 (0.6)1308 (0.4)2604 (0.5)3252 (0.8)10,129 (2.3)
 Normal345,569 (19.6)8,507 (13.0)41,815 (12.4)78,388 (15.0)79,063 (19.8)137,796 (31.4)
 Overweight689,296 (39.6)23,492 (35.9)126,130 (37.3)207,027 (39.6)167,046 (41.8)179,755 (40.9)
 Obese703,450 (39.9)33,054 (50.5)169,074 (50.0)234,354 (44.9)149,942 (37.6)111,872 (25.5)
Average body surface area (SD), m22.1 (0.2)2.1 (0.2)2.1 (0.2)2.1 (0.2)2.1 (0.2)2.0 (0.2)
Statin use during follow-up (%)1,282,527 (72.7)45,963 (70.3)256,950 (76.0)397,119 (76.0)295,012 (73.9)287,483 (65.4)
ACEI/ARB use876,615 (49.7)38,709 (59.2)189,971 (56.2)270,522 (51.8)189,658 (47.5)187,755 (42.7)
Median follow-up time (IQR), yr9.1 (7.7–9.4)9.1 (5.4–9.3)9.1 (7.3–9.3)9.1 (8.1–9.4)9.2 (8.3–9.4)9.1 (7.4–9.4)
Death during follow-up (%)541,682 (30.7)26,247 (40.1)109,222 (32.3)152,625 (29.2)113,785 (28.5)139,803 (31.8)
Microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (%),a mg/g
 0–<2093,696 (69.8)4133 (65.5)21,558 (67.8)30,232 (69.5)20,322 (71.4)17,451 (72.0)
 20–<30036,687 (27.3)1902 (30.2)9168 (28.9)12,030 (27.6)7429 (26.1)6158 (25.4)
 ≥3003938 (2.9)272 (4.3)1053 (3.3)1264 (2.9)709 (2.5)640 (2.6)
Average C–reactive proteinb (SD), mg/dl2.0 (4.4)2.4 (4.7)2.2 (4.7)2.0 (4.4)1.9 (4.2)1.9 (4.3)
  • HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; IQR, interquartile range; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; ACEI, angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a Results for a subset of the cohort (n=134,321).

  • b Results for a subset of the cohort with available C–reactive protein data (n=65,112).