Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 479 children with nephrotic syndrome from 1993 to 2014

Patient CharacteristicsMean±SD, Median [Interquartile Range], or n (%)
European, n=173South Asian, n=237East/Southeast Asian, n=69
Baseline characteristics
 Male106 (61.3)153 (64.6)43 (62.3)
 Age of diagnosis, yr3.70 [2.40–6.81]3.42 [2.49–5.38]4.20 [2.75–10.82]a
 Annual household incomeb (Canadian dollars)45,987±35,01629,859±8596c31,612±13,220c
 Percentage of immigrants in neighborhoodb20.9 [10.0–38.1]56.6 [48.1–65.4]c56.3 [45.2–71.4]c
Laboratory factorsd
 Serum albumin, g/dl2.02±0.531.76±0.48c1.97±0.55
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl0.39 [0.32–0.56]0.36 [0.30–0.44]a0.53 [0.37–0.71]a
 Serum cholesterol, mg/dl383±114449±125c422±100
Clinical outcomese
 Complete remissionf26 (15.0)52 (21.9)19 (27.5)
 Initial steroid resistance13 (7.5)6 (2.5)a5 (7.2)
 Steroid dependent at 6 mog17 (10.6)20 (8.7)3 (4.7)
 Total relapses over entire follow-up,g n5 [2–13]4 [1–8]a2 [0–6]c
 Time followed, yr4.68 [2.66–8.67]3.63 [1.84–5.97]c3.53 [1.76–5.95]h
 Relapses per yearg1.12 [0.42–1.72]1.15 [0.24–1.81]0.67 [0–1.53]a
 Biopsy diagnosis59 (34.1)50 (21.1)h24 (34.8)
  Minimal change disease32 (54.2)35 (70.0)16 (66.7)
  FSGS23 (39.0)14 (28.0)5 (20.8)
  Other4 (6.8)1 (2.0)3 (12.5)
 Use of second-line medication95 (54.9)109 (46.0)31 (44.9)
  Cyclophosphamide86 (90.5)99 (90.8)23 (74.2)a
  Calcineurin inhibitorsi9 (9.5)7 (6.4)8 (25.8)a
 Complete remission after cyclophosphamide29 (33.7)33 (33.3)9 (39.1)
  • Statistical tests were conducted with Europeans as the reference group.

  • a P value ≤0.05 using chi-squared or t test.

  • b Determined using data from Statistics Canada (2006) on the basis of Dissemination Area (19).

  • c P value ≤0.001 using chi-squared or t test.

  • d At onset of nephrotic syndrome, albumin (n=236), creatinine (n=227), and cholesterol (n=205).

  • e Five individuals who never went into remission were excluded from the analyses (n=474) for initial steroid resistance, steroid–dependent nephrotic syndrome, total relapses, and relapse rate.

  • f Complete remission defined as no additional episodes of proteinuria requiring medical intervention after the initial course of therapy.

  • g Twenty-four individuals with initial steroid resistance were excluded from the analysis (n=455).

  • h P value ≤0.01 using chi-squared or t test.

  • i Includes tacrolimus and cyclosporin.