Patient Characteristics | Mean±SD, Median [Interquartile Range], or n (%) | ||
---|---|---|---|

European, n=173 | South Asian, n=237 | East/Southeast Asian, n=69 | |

Baseline characteristics | |||

Male | 106 (61.3) | 153 (64.6) | 43 (62.3) |

Age of diagnosis, yr | 3.70 [2.40–6.81] | 3.42 [2.49–5.38] | 4.20 [2.75–10.82]^{a} |

Annual household income^{b} (Canadian dollars) | 45,987±35,016 | 29,859±8596^{c} | 31,612±13,220^{c} |

Percentage of immigrants in neighborhood^{b} | 20.9 [10.0–38.1] | 56.6 [48.1–65.4]^{c} | 56.3 [45.2–71.4]^{c} |

Laboratory factors^{d} | |||

Serum albumin, g/dl | 2.02±0.53 | 1.76±0.48^{c} | 1.97±0.55 |

Serum creatinine, mg/dl | 0.39 [0.32–0.56] | 0.36 [0.30–0.44]^{a} | 0.53 [0.37–0.71]^{a} |

Serum cholesterol, mg/dl | 383±114 | 449±125^{c} | 422±100 |

Clinical outcomes^{e} | |||

Complete remission^{f} | 26 (15.0) | 52 (21.9) | 19 (27.5) |

Initial steroid resistance | 13 (7.5) | 6 (2.5)^{a} | 5 (7.2) |

Steroid dependent at 6 mo^{g} | 17 (10.6) | 20 (8.7) | 3 (4.7) |

Total relapses over entire follow-up,^{g} n | 5 [2–13] | 4 [1–8]^{a} | 2 [0–6]^{c} |

Time followed, yr | 4.68 [2.66–8.67] | 3.63 [1.84–5.97]^{c} | 3.53 [1.76–5.95]^{h} |

Relapses per year^{g} | 1.12 [0.42–1.72] | 1.15 [0.24–1.81] | 0.67 [0–1.53]^{a} |

Biopsy diagnosis | 59 (34.1) | 50 (21.1)^{h} | 24 (34.8) |

Minimal change disease | 32 (54.2) | 35 (70.0) | 16 (66.7) |

FSGS | 23 (39.0) | 14 (28.0) | 5 (20.8) |

Other | 4 (6.8) | 1 (2.0) | 3 (12.5) |

Use of second-line medication | 95 (54.9) | 109 (46.0) | 31 (44.9) |

Cyclophosphamide | 86 (90.5) | 99 (90.8) | 23 (74.2)^{a} |

Calcineurin inhibitors^{i} | 9 (9.5) | 7 (6.4) | 8 (25.8)^{a} |

Complete remission after cyclophosphamide | 29 (33.7) | 33 (33.3) | 9 (39.1) |

Statistical tests were conducted with Europeans as the reference group.

↵a

*P*value ≤0.05 using chi-squared or*t*test.↵b Determined using data from Statistics Canada (2006) on the basis of Dissemination Area (19).

↵c

*P*value ≤0.001 using chi-squared or*t*test.↵d At onset of nephrotic syndrome, albumin (

*n*=236), creatinine (*n*=227), and cholesterol (*n*=205).↵e Five individuals who never went into remission were excluded from the analyses (

*n*=474) for initial steroid resistance, steroid–dependent nephrotic syndrome, total relapses, and relapse rate.↵f Complete remission defined as no additional episodes of proteinuria requiring medical intervention after the initial course of therapy.

↵g Twenty-four individuals with initial steroid resistance were excluded from the analysis (

*n*=455).↵h

*P*value ≤0.01 using chi-squared or*t*test.↵i Includes tacrolimus and cyclosporin.